Final Study Guide Essay

Submitted By taykearn
Words: 1725
Pages: 7

Attribution-a judgment about the cause of a person’s behavior
Dispositional Attribution- a judgment assigning the cause of a person’s behavior to his or her personal qualities or characteristics
Situational Attribution-a judgment assigning the cause of a person’s behavior to his or her environment
Correspondence Bias- the tendency to view behaviors as the result of disposition when the behavior can be completely explained by the situation in which it occurs
Defensive Attribution- blaming the victim and other biases
Just-world beliefs- the assumption that good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people
Fundamental Attribution Error-when we overestimate how much another person's behavior can be explained by dispositional factors. It reflects failing to adequately consider the role of some situational factors that may affect a person's behavior.
Actor-Observer Effect-The tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal (dispositional) causes.
Self-Serving Bias- tendency to attribute our positive outcomes to personal factors and our negative outcomes to situational factors
Cultural Influences of Attribution- eastern cultures: focus on context or situations and relationships. Western cultures: focus on objects than situations
Prejudice-a prejudgment, usually negative, of another person on the basis of their membership in a group
Stereotype-a simplified set of traits associated with membership in a group or category
Discrimination- unfair behavior based on stereotyping and prejudice
Attitude- positive or negative evaluations that predispose behavior toward an object, person, or situation
Cognitive Dissonance- the uncomfortable state that occurs when behavior and attitudes do not match and that can be resolved through attitude change
Persuasion- a change in attitudes in response to information provided by another person
Elaboration Likelihood Model(ELM)- a model that predicts responses to persuasive messages by distinguishing between the central and peripheral routes to persuasion
Central route to persuasion-well educated about a topic(attention)
Peripheral route to persuasion-(emotion) apply to the persuasive message itself(# of arguments) or the characteristics of the speaker(celebrity)
Social norms-usually unwritten or unspoken rules for behavior in social settings
Conformity-matching behavior and appearance to perceived social norms
Compliance- agreement with a request from a person with no perceived authority
Door-in-the-face-a persuasive technique in which compliance with a large target request is preceded by a large, unreasonable request
Foot-in-the-door-a persuasive technique in which compliance with a small request is followed by compliance with a larger request that might otherwise have been rejected
Obedience-compliance with a request from an authority figure
Social Facilitation- the presence of other people changes performance
Social Loafing-reduced motivation and effort shown by individuals working in a group
Deindividuation- immersion of an individual within a group leading to anonymity
Group Polarization- the intensifying of an attitude following discussion
Groupthink- a type of flawed decision making in which a group does no question its decisions critically
Mere exposure effect-repeated exposure increases liking
Companionate-intimacy+ commitment
Empty Love-Commitment
Fatuous(foolish) Love- passion + commitment
Romantic Love-Intimacy + Passion
Consummate Love-Intimacy + passion + commitment
Altruism- helping others without personal fain or with personal costs
Bystander Intervention- the study of situational variables related to helping a stranger, most notably the decreased likelihood of helping as the number of bystanders increases
Aggression- the conscious intent to harm another
Comorbidity-the presence of two or more disorders in the same individual
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…