“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”
Freedom of religion, meaning freedom to hold an opinion or belief, but not to take action in violation of social duties or subversive to good order.
Freedom of speech, having the right to express oneself with opinions without censorship.
Freedom of press meaning to express through mediums like electronic media and published materials.
Freedom of assembly which is the individual right or ability to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their ideas.
Freedom of petition which is the right to petition the government to express their views and ask for change.
Therefore The First Amendment guarantees freedoms concerning religion, expression, assembly, and the right to petition. Therefore It forbids Congress from both promoting one religion over others and also restricting an individual’s religious practices. Also It guarantees freedom of expression by prohibiting Congress from restricting the press or the rights of individuals to speak freely. Subsequently It also guarantees the right of citizens to assemble peaceably and to petition their government
According to the article Expanding civil rights, it states that “The Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution does not protect the right of gay adults to engage in private, consensual sodomy. When Atlanta police arrived at the residence of Michael Hardwick to arrest him for failing to appear in court on charges of public drinking in August 1982. A roommate let the police into Hardwick's home. While searching for Hardwick in the house they found Hardwick and a male companion engaged in oral sex. Hardwick and his partner were arrested on charges of violating the Georgia Sodomy Statute, which stated that "a person commits the offense of sodomy when he performs or submits to any sexual act involving the sex organs of one person and the mouth or anus of another" and "a person convicted of the offense of sodomy shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than one nor more than 20 years."
As a final point, the article “Bowers v. Hardwick oyez” it explains that the divided Court found that there was no constitutional protection for acts of sodomy, and that states could outlaw those practices. Justice Byron White argued that the Court has acted to protect rights not easily identifiable in the Constitution only when those rights are "implicit in the concept of ordered liberty" (Palko v. Connecticut, 1937) or when they are "deeply rooted in the Nation's history and tradition" (Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965). The Court held that the right to commit sodomy did not meet either of these standards. White feared that guaranteeing a right to sodomy would be the product of "judge-made constitutional law" and send the Court down the road of illegitimacy.
However, this is very different in France. Combating human rights violations on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity is a key concern for France’s foreign policy on human rights.
Homosexual relations between consenting adults are currently illegal in some 80 countries. The punishments prescribed take various forms, up to and including capital punishment in the case of seven countries. In