Nationalism in Education: • The spirit of Nationalism helped shape the kind of education needed. • New liberal ideas stated that individuals had natural rights and that government was an agreement between the people and their ruler. Established the motto, "We the people", not kings or monarchs.
The Age of Enlightenment sought to draw on knowledge and reason to improve the human condition, and their institutions. This lead to the development of democratic traditions in America.
Ancient Greece is considered by most historians to be the cultural foundation of Western Civilization.
Jefferson- that the constitution is a living document that transforms over time, in pace with popular thought, imagination, and opinion • He helped create a national language and curriculum, by replacing the English text with American versions.
Common School Movement (1830-1865): • Compulsory education for all, the beginning of the American educational system as we know it today. • They varied in size, organization and curriculum. • Frontier schools were based on three "R's" (Reading, writing, and arithmetic).
Emphasized liberty, democracy, and religious tolerance, leading to the writing of the U.S. Constitution
Teacher Education Training: • Colonial formal training of teachers began in the 19th century • Teachers were usually young men, but for short durations • Some historians believe that apprentice teaching was most influenced by the Quakers. • In 1812, NY established a State Superintendent to further supervise and establish control. • 1837- secondary school movement.
Development of Higher Education: • Democratic spirit gave rise to higher education. First state institutions were established in the South, University of Georgia.
Demographics: • Between 1830-1860, American territory boomed by over 1,000,000 acres • Population grew from 13,000,000 to 32,000,000 • Immigrants arrived yearly (4,000,000/year) • Rapid growth of industrialization • Working class could not afford to educate their children at private schools. Children remained under-educated • Working class were given an avenue for social and economical mobility.
Native American Indians in Colonial America: • Naturalization Act of 1790: ⁃ Excluded Native American Indians from U.S. citizenship ⁃ They were "foreigners" • Civilization Act of 1819: ⁃ The right of white settlers to Indian lands if the lands were not cultivated.
Trail of Tears: • Removal of Indians from their lands. Once in reservations, they could be controlled, until they proved to be "civilized".
Asian-American Immigration: • Began around 1850s, when cheap labor was needed to build railroads and mines in the West. •
Educational Segregation in America:
Civil Rights Movement: • Brown Decision- U.S. Court order marked the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement in America • Separate but not equal
Civil RIghts Act (1964): • Act prohibits discrimination against students on the basis of race, color, national origin or sex. • Segregated facilities not allowed
National Busing of Students: • One answer to equal equality education for all children.
A major political issue of the 1970s- education was the attempt to eliminate segregation.
Marked by unparalleled resistance by many parents and politicians.
1960's: • Decade of transformation, social unrest, low attendance in colleges, call for a liberal education. • Pbulic schools- a mirror of the larger society reflecting the economic, racial, and social problems of America as a whole. • Higher education- period of continuous growth. Enrollments up, funding was plentiful from federal sources. • Demand- students with doctorates was unprecedented, colleges could not produce teachers fast enough to fill the nation's overcrowded classrooms. • 1964- aid to 182,000 handicapped