Govt Essay Note

Submitted By fastnite1
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Trait Theories * Personality V. traits * Personality- consists of unique and relatively stable patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions * Traits- personal characteristics we use to describe someone * Gordon Allport described individuals by their trait hierarchy * Raymond Cattell and Hans Eysenck used factor analysis to identify the smallest possible number of traits * Five-factor model (FFM)- used to describe most individuals * Openness * Conscientiousness * Extroversion * Agreeableness * Neuroticism * Key research finding and criticisms of trait theories * Evolutionary research and cross-cultural studies support the five-factor model * Trait theories are subject to three major criticisms * Lack of explanation- no explanation for why people develop certain traits an why traits sometimes change * Stability versus change- no specifics provided about which early characteristics endure and which are transient * Ignoring situational effects
Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic theories * Freud’s psychoanalytic approach to personality * Sigmund Freud founded the psychoanalytic approach to personality, which emphasizes the power of the unconscious * The mind (psyche) reportedly functions on three level of awareness * Conscious * Preconscious * Unconscious * The personality has three distinct structures * Id * Ego * Superego * The ego struggles to meet the demands of both id and superego. * When these demands conflict, the ego may resort to defense mechanisms to relieve anxiety * Freud’s five psychosexual stages * Oral * Anal * Phallic * Latency * Gentital * Freud VS. neo-Freudians’ approaches to personality * Three influential followers of Freud who later broke from him were: * Alfred Adler- * emphasized the inferiority complex and the compensating will-to-power * Carl Jung * Introduced the collective unconscious and archetypes * Karen Horney * Stressed the importance of basic anxiety and refuted Freud’s idea of penis envy, replacing it with power envy * Major criticisms of psychoanalytic theories of personality * Critics of the psychoanalytic approach, especially Freud’s theories, argue that * the approach is difficult to test * overemphasizes biology and unconscious forces * has inadequate empirical support * is sexist * lacks cross-cultural support * Despite these criticisms, Freud remains a notable pioneer in psychology
Humanistic Theories * Discuss humanistic theories of personality, comparing the approaches of Rogers and Maslow * Humanistic theories focus on internal experiences (thoughts and feelings) and the individual’s self-concepts * Carl Rogers emphasized mental health, congruence, self-esteem, and unconditional positive regard * Abraham Maslow emphasized the potential for self-actualization * Major criticisms of humanistic theories of personality * Critics of the humanistic approach argue that these theories are based on naïve assumptions and are not scientifically testable or well supported by empirical evidence * In addition, their focus on description, rather than explanation, makes them narrow
Social-Cognitive Theories * Social-cognitive perspective on personality, comparing Bandura and Rotter’s approaches * Social-cognitive theorists- emphasize the importance of our interactions with the environment and how we interpret and respond to these external events * Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive approach focuses on self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism * Julian Rotter- emphasizes cognitive expectancies and an internal or external