1st semester FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
ANATOMY: The study of the form and structure of an organism.
PHYSIOLOGY: The study of the processes of living organisms, or why and how they work.
PATHOPHSIOLOGY: The study of how disease occurs and the responses of living organisms to disease processes.
BODY PLANES, DIRECTIONS AND CAVITIES:
BODY PLANES: Imaginary lies drawn through the body at various parts to separate the body into sections.
-Transverse plane: Is a horizontal plane that divides the body into a top half and bottom half. * Superior- body parts above other parts. * Inferior-body parts below other parts. * Cranial- body parts near the head. * Caudal- body parts located near the sacral region, or tail, of the spinal column.
-Midsagittal (median plane): divides the body into right and left sides. * Medial- body parts close to the midline. * Lateral- body parts away from the midline.
-Frontal (coronal plane): divides the body into front and back section. * Ventral, or anterior- body parts in front of the plane, or on the front of the body. * Dorsal, or posterior- body parts on the back of the body.
Proximal: body parts close to the point of reference.
Distal: body parts distant from the point of reference.
Body Cavities: Spaces within the body that contain vital organs. 2 main body cavivties. -Dorsal Cavitiy: one long, continuous cavity located on the back of the body. Its divided in 2 sections: * Cranial- contains the brain * Spianal- contains the spinal cord
-Ventral Cavities: Separated into two cavities by the dome-shaped muscle, the diaphragm. * Thoracic Cavity: located in the chest and contains the esophagus, trachea, bronchi, lungs, heart, and large blood vessels. * Abdominal Cavity: The upper part of the abdominal cavity contains the stomach, small intestine, most of the large intestine, appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and splean. * Pelvic Cavity- the lower part of the abdominal, and contains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and the last part of the large intestine.
Three main cavities:
-Orbital- for the eyes
-Nasal- for the nose
-Buccal- for the mouth (teeth and tongue)
Four Abdominal Quadrants:
LUQ, LLQ, RUQ, RLQ
6:3 INTEFUMENTARY: or skin.
Three main layers of the skin:
1.Epidermis- the outermost layer of the skin.
2.Dermis- “true skin” This layer has a framework of elastic connective tissue and contains blood vessels; nerves; involuntary muscle; sweat and oil glands; and hair follicles.
3. Subcutaneous fascia, or hypodermis- the innermost layer. Made up of adipose (fatty tissue) and connects the skin to the underlying muscles.
Sudoriferous glands: are sweat glands and contains water, salts, and some body waste.
Sebaceous glands: are oil glands that open into hair follicles and produce sebum.
Functions of the skin-
-Protection: It serves as a barrier to the suns ultraviolet and the invasion of pathogens, or germs.
-Sensory perception- the nerves in the skin help the body respond to pain, pressure, temperature, and touch sensations.
-Body Temperature Regulation: The blood vessels in the skin help the body retain or lose heat.
-Storage: The skin has tissues for temporary storage of fat, glucose, water, vitamins, and salts.
-Absorbtion: Certain substances can be absorbed through the skin.
-Excretion: the skin helps the body eliminate salt, a minute amount of waste, and excess water and heat through perspiration.
-Production; The skin helps in the production of vitamin D by using ultraviolet rays.
Abnormal colors of the skin
Erythema- reddish color of the skin that caused by burns or congestion of blood in the vessels.
Jaundice- a yellow discoloration of the skin, can indicate bile in the blood as a result of liver or gallbladder disease.
Cyanosis- bluish color of the skin caused by insufficient oxygen.
Skin Eruptions 1. Macules-flat spots of the skin, such as freckles.