Compare how the texts you have studied emphasise the complexities evident in the interplay of history and memory.In your response refer to your prescribed text and at least ONE other related text of your own choosing. There is a general perception that memory cannot be trusted, but history has the status of truth. However, just like memory, history is a construction, established through individual and collective memories, which by nature are subjective and coloured by circumstance. Mark Baker’s autobiographical/biographical novel “The Fiftieth Gate” and Josh Neufeld’s graphic novel “a.d New Orleans After the Deluge” exhibit contrasting ideas on how both history and memory can be essential to any construction of the past, through the Holocaust and the post Hurricane Katrina tragedy, respectively. The democratization of history has allowed individual memory to become a verifiable source of information, used to construct history, thus showing how the interplay of history and memory can therefore result in new representations of events and people, ones which are now reshaped and coloured by individual and collective memories. Baker explores this idea in his novel “The Fiftieth Gate” by delving into his parent’s memory, Yossl and Genia, showing how history and individuals are reshaped by individual memory. Through the use of the ironic simile in imaginative account of Hinda’s experience at the death camp in Belzec “we move silently through the doors toward the shed like brides headed for ritual purification”, Baker evocatively conveys the unique and mixed emotions attached to her experience, which cannot be conveyed through documents or words. Furthermore, Baker is also able to represent the impact that personal recollections have on an individual, particularly Genia, through the use of low modality in “Nightfall to me is sadness and darkness and I just can’t disconnect my past” Baker conveys the extent to which memories haunt her to the present day. Baker’s use of an SS officer’s testimony along with accented dialogue in “found something at last… it’s really true”, allow responders to perceive the significance of history and memory by showing how the ability to add a third dimension of individual emotion and experience can simultaneously correspond and enrich history. Baker thus reveals the representation of recollections as valuable as not only to history but also to a personal dimension. Although history can be constructed through memory, memory is often tainted by emotions and personal experiences, thus contradicting history. Through Baker’s journey to validate the experiences of his parents in the Holocaust with factual evidence, he represents personal recollections as often tainted by emotion and time, remaining unreliable, fragile, highly subjective and fallible. Through the exploration of Yossl’s memory, the use of pathetic fallacy by Yossl as he described his day as “cold, winter” although historical records show that it was “warm. Autumn”, displays how Yossl uses the whether to convey his emotions, contradicting historical records. Likewise, the accumulation of Yossl’s birthdates ranging from “1926” to “1929” also contradicts history as Yossl altered his historical records, acting as a survival mechanism due to the particular circumstances he was in. The idea that memory is often tainted by emotion and personal experiences is also shown through Genia’s memory as she believed that she was kept in the dark during the holocaust displayed through the dark imagery and hyperbole, “In a cellar all day, underground and closed, and nothing, in the darkness, all the time.”, despite the fact that Genia recounts her experience of the Holocaust as being dark, Baker discovers from the other people that she was residing with that “they do not remember the blackness. They recall a little girl staring endlessly out of a window”, the use of high modality shows that it was Genia’s perception of this event…
“Memory is an active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage” (Ciccarelli, S, K & White, J. N. 2010). Memory is a very interesting subject consisting of many different types of memory of which two are short term memory and long term memory. Short term memory is when you forget something quickly in a short amount of time,…
they feel like taking little pieces of information and analyzing it for a good period of time will help it stick in their long term memory longer and they’re not wrong for thinking that. The positive thing about studying this way is that they’re not overloading their brain with information and chances are what they do study will be maintained in the long term memory. The negative thing about studying this way is that they’re taking the chance of studying too early and possibly forgetting what they…
effectively stored in Long Term Memory?
Models of memory such as the working memory model (Baddely and Hitch, 1974) and the multi-store memory model (Atkinson and Shiffron, 1968) are both models which are backed up by psychological evidence. However, these models have clear weaknesses, so Craik and Lockhart proposed the Levels of Processing model of memory in 1972 in response to these integral flaws. Craik and Lockhart’s theory is a more unstructured approach which focuses on memory processing as opposed…
factual history and our collective memory has been challenged by texts ability to present different truths. All these texts are a form of historiography. They recognize that the construction of history is created with a purpose.
Good morning students and teachers, in this speech I will be focusing on postcolonial texts and their representation of individuals in history, and how these differing representations alter their reliability in our collective memory. Using the texts of ‘True History of the…
Memory is a fragile process. Examine this statement with reference to psychological theory.
There are many definitions of memory but the basic function is to retain and recall information. Psychologists have realised that memory is a major component in order to get by, not only to succeed in an academic or career orientated world but generally within life. Memory surrounds us in the form of birthdays, appointments, song lyrics, exams and even finding your way home. All that said memory is not…
Types of Memory
Plasticity: the brains ability to change as result of experience
Plasticity is greatest during childhood
However, plasticity persists throughout life
It occurs by changing the pattern of connectivity between neurons
Short term memory: memory for information currently help in current consciousness
Capacity of STM
-this is also known as phonological memory
it can be assessed using span tests
Miller in 1956 suggested that span is 7 +/- 2
He denotes that…
Storage of memory is a process of retaining information in the brain, whether in sensory, short or long-term memory. These different stages of memory function are intended for our own protection – from the flood of unnecessary information. The humans have the capacity to store unlimited amounts of information indefinitely. Forgetting is inability to retrieve information that was recorded into a brain. However, the information that has been learned very well will be resistant to forgetting.
Chapter 8: Memory
* Reconstructing the Past
* _______________________: Refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information, and also to the structures that account for this capacity
* The Manufacture of Memory
* Unlike a tape recorder or video camera, human memory is
* Highly _______________________:
* Often drawn from many sources
* Source misattribution can occur
MODULE C – History and Memory
The Fiftieth Gate by Mark Baker suggests that a combination of history and memory is essential in making meaning, i.e. in shaping perceptions of the world around us. How does baker represent this combination to create meaning?
History can be viewed as a sequential series of indisputable events, whereas memory is of such events that are highly subjective, and affect the way in which they are perceived. The link between history and memory and the way it shapes the…