World War 1
World War 2
World War 1
Fought between Allied and Central Powers
Allied Powers: France, Britain, United States, Russia, Italy, Japan, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Belgium, Montenegro and others.
Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
Began when Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire
However, Europe had been preparing for war for a long time, this was only the fuse that lit the powder keg and blew the war open.
War was originally met with lots of excitement and cheerfulness on both sides.
Citizens filled with national pride and were excited for their countries to become great in the eyes of the world
France wanted to take back the territory of Alsace-Lorraine which it had lost to Germany in the Franco Prussian War in 1870-71
French HATED the Germans after this, they were humiliated by the loss
Germany wanted to defeat France again and become the major power in Europe.
First Total War- Entire nations were mobilized, citizens contributed a ton to war effort, economy and government turned completely to helping the war. Also ushered in a new era of warfare in which civilians became accepted casualties.
Also total war because it was a huge multi-national war with many nations on each side and it was fought all over the world.
Nations sucked into it because of treaties they had made in the past.
For example Britain at first wanted to stay out of the war because of problems with Ireland and it had a smaller Army, but it had a treaty to protect Belgium’s neutrality and also had a trade treaty with Russia.
When they decided to attack France through Belgium, the Germans violated Belgian neutrality and so forced Britain into the war. Also, by trying to enforce a law that prevented Russia from trading with the British they sucked the Russians in.
Total War characterized essentially by massive deployments of armies on multiple fronts, mobilization of economy to fuel war, politics all turned to war making, involvement of civilians in production and support but also as military targets.
Last big European war had been fought 99 years before
No living memory of a major war
Nobody remembered the horros
Most Europeans greeted the war as an exciting release from the monotony of peaceful life.
The Last Gentlemen of War:
SMS Emden, light cruiser in the German navy
Made in 1906, maiden voyage in ’09. It had 3 stacks for its coal burning engine and a crew of 361. Minimal armor, small guns, coal piston engine. Already Obsolete in 1914 when the war started.
Commanded by Karl Von Muller from 1913, held the illusion of war carried out the old way, he tried to do his duty while upholding human morals.
Sent to do minor colonial duty in China sea
Muller predicts war with France and England would start by August, so he puts his ship out to sea instead of waiting to be sunk
When notified by Berlin that the war had started the Emden is thousands of miles from home in water full of enemy ships. Becomes hunted prey
Muller sees his duty to disrupt enemy shipping, hunted by Winston Churchill who was then head of the Royal Navy and was bent on destroying all the German commerce raiders.
Muller has Emden repainted all black for war, paints over name and replaces it with the name of a Japanese ship
The German Admiral, Spey, had a plan to go to west coast of South America to hunt allied shipping w/out enemy patrols
Muller disagrees, thinks Indian Ocean is better target.
Spey doesn’t want to go so he sends Muller by himself to wage cruiser war
Muller rigs dummy coal stack on the deck so that from a distance it looks like a heavy cruiser
September 9th- spots first ship, captures Greek merchant vessels and buys the coal it had on deck. Takes on the crew.
After that Muller captured many allied ships, each time he took some of their goods but made sure