INTRODUCTION: It's incredible how evolution has been into this world for thousands and thousands of years. When a person thing about this unbelievable event, it's good to know that nowadays there is the technology and implements to research and know more about our ancestors. In class we did a very fascinating experiment, we had some pictures and skulls from different primates and we analyzed them. Sometimes, a person cannot imagine the huge difference that those could have. We studied primates from the female chimpanzee until the modern human, also called Homo Sapiens. Following, you will see all the analysis done in class and I hope you get as excited as I was when I was working on it.
OBJECTIVES: * Be able to use measuring elements. * Read appropriately the skeletal features. * Recognize the different skull parts so the measurement can be done. * Be competent at the moment of the analysis.
MATERIALS: * Small and big ruler * Pictures of skulls * Worksheet for recording descriptions and measurements * Real skulls to have a better idea of the procedure
PROCEDURE: 1. Work in groups of 2. 2. Have ready your copy with the different pictures of skulls of primates. 3. Take a moment to identify which skull belongs to a modern human and which one belongs to a chimpanzee. 4. Take the worksheet and read what you have to do so you are prepared. 5. Take the ruler and start doing the measurements. 6. Record all the measurements in the worksheet. 7. Then, take a bigger ruler and take the index of the measurement of your partner. 8. Record the measurement and write it on the board. 9. Take the range and the average of the 20 measurements on the board. 10. Answer the questions based on what you have done in the lab.
1. Comparison of Chimpanzee and Human Skulls
QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED 1. Why do you think the canine tooth reduced in size so much from earlier to later hominids?
ANSWER: Evolution has changed everything since early chimpanzees to nowadays modern humans. In my opinion, tooth size reduced so much because of the diet of each species. For instance, early hominids used to eat raw meat and for this, they needed big size tooth to chew all this. Those hominids did not cook anything, everything they put on their mouth was fresh meat from animals. Tooth adapted to the way of eating.
2. Why do you think the face flattens over time in hominid?
ANSWER: Seeing a hominid is like seeing an ape, their definitions and features aren't clear. For instance, smaller chain or smaller forehead. They as hominids did not need much of anything. They did not have a big brain and that is why their forehead was smaller.
3. What areas or portions of the braincase enlarged first and which ones enlarged later in the hominids?
ANSWER: Cranial length and breath, skull length and facial projection were some of the parts that enlarged first and they started being notice from the Cro-Magnon man. On the other hand, the canine-incisor index got smaller.
4. What behavioral and cognitive functions are