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Modern Global Studies 21 – Midterm Study Guide
Characteristics of Enlightened Thought
No longer subject to Church and its ideas (ex. buying/selling indulgences)
Not being fed explanations – Empiricism – Using science to challenge Church ideas
Reason & individualism – Questioning Church
Public education – “Enlightened” with truth
Belief in progress
More secular outlook
Importance of individual
John Locke –
Reasonable beings able to self-govern (democracy)
All born free & equal with three natural rights – life, liberty, and property
Gov’t designed to protect natural rights – Right of Revolution if fails to do so
Power comes from the consent of the people
Rousseau (The Social Contract) –
Civilization corrupted natural goodness, born free and equal, no nobility
Best gov’t: direct democracy – freely formed by people
Give up some freedom for common good (utilitarianism)
Social contract: agreement between free individuals and gov’t
Montesquieu (On the Spirit of Laws) –
Separation of powers based on British gov’t (three branches)
Led to checks and balances (no one person or group gaining too much power)
Hobbes (Leviathan) –
Naturally wicked/selfish
Handed over rights for law and order in social contract
Best gov’t: Absolute monarchy (total authority)
Voltaire –
Freedom of religion & speech, attacked the Church
Sought to rid religious superstition; promoted religious tolerance
Used satire and wit to fight for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion & speech
Wollstonecraft (A Vindication of the Rights of Woman) –
One of first feminists
Fought for women’s equality
Women need equal education as men
Urged women to enter male fields (medicine & politics)
Beccaria –
Laws used to preserve order, not to avenge crimes
Speedy trial, abolition of torture & capital punishment
Punishment fits the crime
Gov’t should seek the greatest good on greatest number of people
French Revolution
French Social Structure/Injustice
Financial Crisis
Inefficient Monarchy
American Revolution
Enlightenment Ideals

Estates General/Class Structure in “Old Regime” France

Storming of the Bastille
3rd Estate → National Assembly → Tennis Court Oath (pledge for new constitution)
Rumors that Louis was going to use military force to dismiss NA
July 14, 1789 – A mob searching for gunpowder/arms stormed the Bastille
Gathered ammunition and freed politicians, carried guards heads on pikes
Symbol of French Revolution
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
National Assembly – Constitution – Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen
Liberty, equality, fraternity
Equal justice, freedom of speech & religion
Brought Church under state control
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Committee of Public Safety – Absolute power (Maximilien Robespierre – Jacobin leader)
Changed calendar, no Sundays, closed churches – de-Christianization
Sought to rid France of internal enemies through execution w/ guillotine
Estimated 200 people/week
Lost sight of goal – most executed from lower classes, Robespierre executed
Law of 22 Prairial – Trial – Freedom or Death
Napoleon – Steps to Coronation
1799: Coup d’état leads to three man consulate
1802: First Consul for Life
1804: Coronation presided over by the Pope – Divine Right Economic Reforms
Controlled bread prices (Subsidized Farmers)
Encouraged new industry
Built roads & canals
Jobs awarded based on talent/merit
Peasants got to keep land they got from nobles/church
Social Reform
Concordat of 1801: Made peace w/Catholic Church
Encouraged émigrés to return to France pending loyalty oath
Initiated a public school system run by government
Napoleonic Code
Established equality of all citizens before law
Religious toleration
Advancement based on merit
Women could not exercise rights of citizenship
Male heads of household had complete control over females
Fall from Power
Rivalry with England
Continental System