In battle, what defines a victory? Is it the number of enemies killed, which force takes control over hard fought land, the force who does not retreat or is it the force who is able to convince the masses of their triumph? The U.S. is credited with the victory in the Battle of San Pascual, but the events that occurred during and after the battle suggest a different victor. Exploring statements and reports from those who witnessed and/or were involved in the Battle of San Pascual prove that there is a conflicting dichotomy as to who the true victor was, the invading U.S. forces, or the defending Californios. General Stephen Watts Kearny and his U.S. forces came into California with the strong belief that they would easily defeat any Californio forces who attempted to impede their conquering of California. Led by Commander Andres Pico, the Californios whom inhabited the California territory being invaded, fought long and hard with several motivators; the most prominent of these being the desire to defend and act upon their hate for the invading American forces. Californios refused to be defeated. General Stephen Watts Kearny was a highly decorated officer in the U.S. army. At the age of 18, as a first lieutenant, he fought against the British in the War of 1812, battled the Plains Indians in 1830, and was presidentially ordered to organize a heavily armed cavalry regiment, the First Regiment of Dragoons.i Given the responsibility of training new horse soldiers, Kearny was named "Father of the U.S. Cavalry".ii Kearny was a tough and strong man who could still be very just. He was known to be fair when it came to negotiations with Native Americans, but if he had to take action, he could do so easily. At the beginning of the Mexican-American War, Kearny was promoted to Brigadier General and was ordered to take a force of 2,500 men to seize Santa Fe, New Mexico.iii The Mexican forces at Santa Fe retreated to Mexico, allowing Kearny to take New Mexico without a fight during the initial contact, but Mexican forces would rally, rebel, and fight against the American invaders. Kearny’s reputation preceded him as a force to be reckoned with. General Andres Pico was a San Diego native, a productive Ranchero and served as Commander of the "California Lancers" of Alta California, what is today simply known as California. His older brother Pio Pico, was the last Mexican governor of Alta California. Alta Californians had mixed feelings regarding Andres Pico. They were not sure if he was in collusion with the Americans and someone who could potentially betray his homeland if the price was right, or if he was a loyal Californio.iv After the recapture of San Diego by the Americans, Jose Maria Flores, Mexican governor of California ordered Pico, with the assistance of Captain Leonardo Cota, to watch American movements and keep them from plundering resources in the surrounding area. Pico had an informant within the city, his sister Margarita, who told him of the American movements.v Aided by Margarita's knowledge, Pico learned that Captain Archibald H. Gillespie, U.S. Army officer who had fought to gain control of San Diego, had set out from San Diego toward the Native American Rancheria of San Pascual in an effort to join with another group of Americans. The troops, led by General Kearny, were making their way from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Kearny and Gillespie's forces were meeting up to join forces. Their combined forces were to head to San Diego and attempt to eliminate any other threats the Mexican forces stationed and living there. The Californios under Pico's command were eager and ready to fight Kearny and Gillespie because of their advantageous reputations toward Mexicans. Kearny held contempt for Mexicans and saw them as weak and cowardly after the easy take-over of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Gillespie, while in control of Los Angeles, "deemed them (Mexicans) of an inferior race and cowardly, was inclined to treat them with as much…
Battle of Gettysburg
In the summer of 1863, both the north and south were dealing with problems all their own. In the north, with presidential elections right around the corner, there was the possibility that that a pro-peace president might be elected who would be willing to let the southern states split in return for an end to the war. In the south, it was becoming increasingly difficult to find supplies, weapons, fighting men and even shoes, to maintain the war effort. According to the author…
3 March 2011
Review of Peter Krentz, The battle of Marathon
The Battle of Marathon was arguably one of the most important battles in Greek history. In his book, Peter Krentz critically analyzes every specific aspect of this battle from the events that lead up to it, the battle itself and the aftermath. Krentz debunks the most important aspects of the fight including the weight of the common hoplites armor, the topography of the plain of marathon, and Miltiades strategy…
Essential Civil War Curriculum | Gordon C. Rhea, The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse | August 2012
The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse
By Gordon C. Rhea
On the evening of May 3, 1864, the Union Army of the Potomac crossed the
Rapidan River, aiming to swing west below the stream and attack General Robert E.
Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Halting so that the Federal force’s supply trains could
catch up, the Potomac army’s commander Major General George G. Meade elected to
Nicole Dean & Ashley Mutton
January 13, 2015
Battle of Hong Kong
The Canadians first made an appearance in the Second World War in December of 1941, while called to protect Hong Kong from a Japanese attack. The Canadian soldiers along side the Hong Kong soldiers fought relentlessly with overwhelming odds against them. The soldiers refused to surrender but were eventually overrun by the Japanese. Those who survived the battle became prisoners of war and suffered the torture, disease…
Battle of the Parks
Have you ever had a tough time planning a family event? Especially between events that are so much alike. You want to do both but just can’t afford them at the same time. People travel and go out to different attractions around the world. Their number one goal is to have fun and the most exciting time of their life. Some attractions or theme parks are year round and others just come around once a year. For example, Universal studios and the Miami Dade Youth Fair (MDYF)…
Theology Period 1
April 17th, 2014
Butter Battle Book by Dr. Seuss
This story relates to militarism because each side of the wall is trying to be better than each other. They don’t like each other because one side of the wall puts butter on the bottom of their bread, and the other puts butter on the top of their bread. Instead of accepting what each other does and just dropping it, they resort to violence. Each side of the wall feels that violence is the best and most effective way…
Battle of Lexington
The Battle of Lexington was the first battle of the Revolutionary War. In April 1775, when British troops were sent to confiscate colonial weapons, they ran into an untrained and angry militia. This ragtag army defeated 700 British soldiers and the surprise victory bolsters their confidence for the war ahead. General Thomas Gage, the military governor of Massachusetts, was aware that the colonists in the Province of Massachusetts Bay were preparing for conflict, including…
Sealing the Fate of North America
The battle of the Plains of Abraham was fought on the 13th of September 1759. It was the result of a three-month British siege of the French North American capital of Quebec City. Although the battle lasted for a short period of time, involved comparatively few troops, and caused few casualties, the effects of the battle were far reaching. The British victory at the battle resulted both in the death of the French general – the Marquis de Montcalm – and the British…
BATTLE OF CALABRIA (BATTLE OF PUNTA STILO) - 1940
1. In the history, the Struggle for the Middle Sea describes the naval war fought in the Mediterranean and Red Sea with five great navies that participated:
a. Great Britain’s Royal Navy.
b. Italy’s Regia Marina.
c. France’s Marine Nationale.
d. United States Navy.
e. German Kriegsmarine.
2. It examines the national essential that made the Mediterranean such a vital theater for each of these powers and…