Section 1 Energy Changes
A. ENERGY – ability to cause change
B. ENERGY TRANSFORMATION – energy changes from one form to another without any being lost or gained
C. Energy due to motion is KINETIC ENERGY. 1. An object’s kinetic energy depends on its SPEED and MASS. 2. When objects collide, kinetic energy can be transferred.
D. POTENTIAL ENERGY – stored energy due to an object’s position
E. Potential energy can be transformed to kinetic energy and kinetic energy can be converted to potential energy.
F. Law OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY – energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form 1. Total amount of energy in the universe never changes. 2. Kinetic energy can be converted to heat energy.
Section 2 Temperature
A. TEMPERATURE – measure of the average kinetic energy of an object’s atoms
B. Temperature is measured with a THERMOMETER. 1. FAHRENHEIT SCALE– freezing point of water is 32o and boiling point is 212o 2. CELSIUS SCALE – freezing point of water is 0o and boiling pint is 100o
C. HEAT – transfer of energy from one object to another due to a difference in temperature 1. Heat moves from warmer objects to cooler one. 2. Flow of heat stops when the temperature of two objects is the same.
D. Water is unusual because it takes a large amount of heat to raise its temperature; water’s temperature does not change as much as surrounding air or land.
E. HEAT can be transferred in three ways. 1. CONDUCTION – transfer of energy by collisions between atoms; usually occurs in solids 2. CONVECTION – transfers heat when particles…