Leading up to World War I, there was a great deal of tension in Europe. One of the most explosive moments before the war arrived when Slavs wanted to break away from Austria to join the unified Slavic nation of Serbia, It was after the assassination of the Archduke of Austria that the terms for doing so led to a disagreement between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, which eventually led to the mobilization of allied armies on both sides. Instead of helping, the Allied Forces’ involvement only created more tension as the countries began declaring war on each other. The combination of Serbia’s fight for separation, the domino effect of mobilization, and previously created alliances together instigated the outbreak of World War I. Throughout this time, as the ideal of nationalism spread like wild fire all across Europe, the Serbs grasped onto this ideal for themselves, creating tension between them and the Austro-Hungarian government and finally leading to war. By 1914, the Slavic citizens of Austria had gained enough of a sense of nationalism to decide that they wanted to leave Austria and move to Serbia, a self-governing Slavic nation. As predicted in “The Origins of the First World War” by Bernadotte Schmitt, the Serbs… would detach their kinsmen from Habsburg rule and establish a unified independent Yugoslav state,” this occurred. In his 1998 article, “Origins of the World War,” Fay writes, “Serbia felt a natural and justifiable impulse to do what so many other countries has done in the nineteenth century — to bring under one national Government all the disconnected Serb people.” After Serbia was created, a group called the “Black Hand” assassinated the archduke of Austria. Some of the members included government officials of the Serbian government, which gave Austria the excuse that they were looking for to create an ultimatum with threats of war. The Austrian government stated that if followed the ultimatum would prevent war. Unfortunately, these rules included submissiveness to Austrian officials and the suppression of all propaganda against Austria, which of course only created significant limits on the Serbs’ freedom. Austria knew that Serbia would decline such absurd terms, yet because the ultimatum gave the appearance of a good faith effort on its part, Austria believed it would appear validated when it declared war on the “rebellious” Serbs. In response, the Serbs, fueled by their nationalistic ideals, appealed to Russia for aid, setting the stage for war. Mobilization across Europe led to even more chaos, bringing the countries rapidly into war by creating a domino effect.. Many European countries, aware of the increasing discord across the continent, began to mobilize their armies once other countries began to do so. Germany was an ally to Austria at the time of the Austro-Serbian war and therefore came to Austria’s aid. As Fay writes, “Germany would fulfill the obligations of the alliance…Germany [had to] share the great responsibility of Austria” (19). Almost immediately after Germany had prepared its army to join the war, it heard news of Russia’s mobilization. Germany responded by giving Russia 12 hours to suspend the mobilization and threatening them with talks of mobilization of their own army. Nevertheless, Russia failed to yield, and Germany insisted that a military solution was the necessary response. In declaring war on Russia, Germany created an even bigger problem than there was to start with, because it made a large-scale war inevitable. Militarization, which was a common idea at the time, meant that there were now huge armies that added to the fight and created far more bloodshed. To make matters ever more complicated, Germany was determined to go through Belgium in order to attack France. Belgium, however, refused, and then delayed offers of help from Britain to help defend their land in an effort to remain neutral as long as possible. Only after Germany decided to attack did Belgium,
Growing up in Versailles,
the idea was to please the least amount of people.”
Versailles was created to make
WW1 the war to end all wars. How did it help to start an even larger war less than 20
years later? The Treaty of Versailles helped cause WW2 by, Territorial loss, Military
restrictions, and the “War Guilt Clause”.
The Treaty helped cause WW2 by severely weakening Germany through
territorial losses. Germany was forced to give up all their possessions (Africa).…
Historically in the years leading up to WW1 Italy had sided with Germany, Austria and Hungary in the form of the triple alliance. Italy however did not join in siding with these nations when WW1 began in August 1914. Instead Italy chose to wait and see how the war went before joining the side of the triple entente- Britain, France and Russia on April 26th 1915, with the signing of the Secret Treaty of London.…
Only American commander that participated in WW1 and WW2
• Allied invasion of Normandy in WWII
• Largest sea-born invasion in history
• Planning began in 19443
• Military deception in month leading up
• Not ideal weather
• 6,939 naval vessels, 1,213 warships, 4,126 land crafts, 736 ancillary crafts, 864 merchant vessels, 195,700 naval persons involved.…
Liberalism and its Crisis
Problem occurred around the time period of WW1 and post WW1
Long 19th century I peak of liberalism’s appeal
Liberal institutions develop even when social basis is not obviously present
The middle-class in Hungary were considered non-Hungarian (often German or Jewish)
Elections occurred but it was corrupted – the leading political party had control over it
Liberalism and the working class
Extension of the franchise – the right to vote (include newer groups)
It has experienced great difficulties such as the “Great Depression” of 1929 and fought in both WW1 and WW2. Australia has been politically involved with great countries such as the United States and part of Europe throughout its history and it is currently facing some conflicts within its territory.
Australia has been facing conflicts with extreme droughts since the 1970’s due to its very dry location and lack of rain due to constant climate changes.…
Between the Franco-Prussian war and WW1, it increased its military spending by almost 350 percent, more than any other country at the time, and the growth of its army alarmed France, that increased the numbers of its army in response. Also, Germany entered in a naval race with Britain, aiming to challenge its fleet, and this caused an increase in tension between the two countries.…
Economic Failure: WW1 had damaged the German economy and this was made wore by the Treaty Reparations. Millions of soldiers were unemployed. Families were starving.
Social Unrest: People were dissatisfied and looked for more aggressive solutions. Extremist revolutionaries: Spartacists and Freikorps. Spartacists wanted a revolution and wanted to take over Berlin. The Freikorps were uniformed ex soldiers and young mean set up as vigilante gangs to fight against them.…
He was only interested in preserving the Magyars leading role in the country – Annexation of the larger Slav population would threaten dualism.
-Tisza was forced to agree to the declaration of war due to united pressure from Vienna and Berlin but with the understanding that Serbian wouldn’t be annexed following the war.
-During the first half of the war, Tisza had a firm hold on the government but the longer the war lasted, the worst conditions got and less support he had.…
This Navy was not strong, as it was nicknamed “The Tin Pot Navy”.
1.2 – Events leading to the beginning of WW1
The Naval Crisis
Germany’s new leader wants to make Germany the strongest country in the world. Britain currently holds that position because they possess the strongest navy in the world. So, the new leader of Germany decides that they should build “Dreadnaughts”, which are ships that are heavily geared for war.…
These factors show how the outbreak of WW1 in Europe in 1914 was due to an aggressive foreign policy which had been waged since the 19th century. This is because the Schlieffen Plan and Navy expansion was an attempt to show their dominance in Europe by making a conscience decision to assert their military strength.…