Outline The Production Function The Demand for Labor The Supply of Labor Labor Market Equilibrium Unemployment Relating Output and Unemployment Okuns Law Interesting Questions If oil shocks hurt our economy should we look to alternate fuels If your salary went up permanently would you work more or less If you received a onetime increase to work extra hours would you Should minimum wage increase Are the recent increase the right increases The Production Function What goes into the production of output Factors of production Capital (K) Labor (N) Others (land, energy) Technology and management Our production function is going to be YAF(K,N) The parameter A is total factor productivity. Kinda like technology. There is a special form of the production function called Cobb-Douglas that actually shows a stable relationship for the U.S. economy. YAK.3N.7. We have no way of measuring A directly. It is found by solving the production function for A. Taking 2004 for example 10756(y)A11249.3139.3.7 Solving for A we get a productivity of 20.68. What does the production function look like Ok what do we know If we add more inputs then we get more output. But, the increase is going to keep getting smaller because of diminishing marginal product as inputs increase. Ex. Pizza Company. (Holding Workers Constant) EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s MPK is always positive Diminishing marginal productivity of capital says that MPK declines as K rises. We can make all of the same arguments for graphing output against labor holding ovens constant. EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s Number of WorkersNumber of Pizzas00110218324428530630730 What Shifts the Production Function Supply shocks Supply shock productivity shock a change in an economys production function Supply shocks affect the amount of output that can be produced for a given amount of inputs Shocks may be positive (increasing output) or negative (decreasing output) Examples weather, inventions and innovations, government regulations, oil prices Let us take a look at an adverse supply shock that will lower the MPN. Summary of supply shocks Supply shocks cause shifts in the production function. Negative shocks usually it is a shift down of the production curve and the slope of the production function decreases at each level of input. Positive shock usually it is a shift outward of the production curve and the slope of the production function will increase at each level of output. The Demand for Labor The question is really how much labor do firms want to use In order to get a meaningful answer we need to make some important assumptions Hold the capital stock fixed Short-run we dont buy new ovens or factories Workers are all alike If we look at a large segment of people in the same job area this is not such a bad assumption. Labor market is competitive Says that there is a prevailing wage set for a given job. i.e. all economists make 10/hr. Firms want to maximize their profits I think everyone can live with this assumption. Back to the Pizza example Ok let us assume each pizza sells for 20. MPNP is the Marginal Revenue product of labor. MRPN tells us how much additional revenue that one extra worker would bring to the pizza shop if he was hired. Number of WorkersNumber of PizzasMPNMPN P (MRPN)0010200 1108160 2186120 324480 428240 5300063000730 So how many workers is the pizza shop going to hire Let us say that the going nominal wage is 150 dollars. Well we can see that the pizza shop will make a profit if they hire the first worker (the worker is providing 200 of revenue and only costs 150) they will also hire the second worker for the same argument. But, they will not hire the third worker because that worker is only bringing an addition 120 of revenue but will cost 150. What happens if the prevailing nominal wage was to decrease to 110 Then they would hire the third worker. So in summary if the MRPN is higher than the prevailing nominal wage there is an incentive to hire additional workers, if
fundamental units of matter.
[ ] 3. What did Democritus’ proposals lack in explanatory reasoning? Why?
They lacked experimental support.
[ ] 4. Who essentially continued the work of Democritus with the use of experimental
John Dalton. Based on his experimental work he was able to conclude the following
hypothesis (also known as Dalton’s Atomic Theory): “1. All elements are composed of
submicroscopic indivisible particles (atoms!) 2. Atoms of the same element are identical. 3.
Atoms of different elements…
3. … Negligence
4. … Business organizations: Companies, Partnerships and Sole Traders;
5. … Contract Law; and
6. … Competition and Consumer Law
TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESSES:
Students attend one session per week with a two-hour lecture/seminar, one-hour tutorial and one-hour workshop. Lectures are used to introduce main concepts and to guide students through important points. Tutorials/workshops are used to assist students in the application of concepts presented in lectures through…
Problem Set 3
Learning Objectives: The main objective of this assignment is to start looking at using some engineering tools to understand some hazards better and improve safety. After successfully completing this assignment, you should be able to
Apply the principles of electric current flow to assess and prevent injuries from electricity, and
Use some standard guidelines to prevent cutting, crushing, or other injuries from equipment.
Before attempting Problem Set 3:
1. View Lectures 8 and…
S2 Day 2014
Dept of Accounting & Corporate Governance
Delivery and Resources
Policies and Procedures
Changes from Previous Offering
Research and Practice
Macquarie University has taken all reasonable
measures to ensure the information in this
publication is accurate and up-to-date.…
1Biology 3 BIOLOGY 3 Instructor: Sakai
Winter 2013 Office: SCI 288
Read this syllabus. You are responsible for its content. I hate to make these rules, but some of you do your best to "bend" the rules at the expense of your colleagues, which I hate even more. I will listen to all (well, almost all) excuses with a sympathetic ear & even shed a crocodile tear or two. Do not lose this file.
CLASS TIMES: We meet M-Th from 8:00a to 12:15p. The operative time is 8:00a. We…
Management, Prentice Hall
EFIM30014 Lecture 1 (2)
What are Operations?
‘The physical processes by which
companies take in raw materials, convert
them into products and then distribute
them to customers (often other business
customers rather than the consumer or
end-user). It is a vital part of the business
process and ranks highly in the
responsibilities of management.’
Financial Times (1997) Mastering Management Series, FT Pitman
EFIM30014 Lecture 1 (3)
A simple transformation model…
Tips on Studying for Exams
Studying efficiently requires organisation of time and resources. The following points are a general set of guidelines to help you prepare for exams.
Find out the kinds of exams you will be sitting
Different types of exams will require different approaches. Here are some tips:
If you are sitting an exam that requires answers in essay form, find out how many questions you have to answer. For example, if you must answer four questions, select and study…
Lone and Team Player
Paid a fee for services
Types of Consultant
– Working for a company or organisation
– Skills available to all departments
– Set terms and conditions of employment
– Employed by company for specific task
– Will have multiple clients
– Fee paid by clients for each job undertaken
What Is a Project?
• A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create…