Essay on Management and Norms Performance Norms

Submitted By anton13
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Pages: 4

Chapter 8: Managing Groups and Teams
Groups – two or more people, interdependence, common goals
• Types of groups
Formal Group:
Defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks
-Command Group
A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager
-Task Group
Those working together to complete a job or task in an organization but not limited by hierarchical boundaries
Informal Group:
Appear naturally in response to the need for social contact
Deeply affect behavior and performance
- Interest Group
Members work together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
-Friendship Group
Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics
• Stages of groups
Forming -Members feel much uncertainty
Storming- Lots of conflict between members of the group
Norming Stage- Members have developed close relationships and cohesiveness
Performing Stage-The group is finally fully functional
Adjourning Stage- In temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance
• Group properties (roles, norms, status, size, and cohesion)
Role-A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit
Role Conflict-A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations

Norms-Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members
Classes of Norms
Performance norms - level of acceptable work
Appearance norms - what to wear
Social arrangement norms - friendships and the like
Allocation of resources norms - distribution and assignments of jobs and material
Group norms and Hawthorne studies
- Group influences (norms) were significant in affecting individual behavior.
-Group standards (norms) were highly effective in establishing individual worker output.
-Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
Conformity-Gaining acceptance by adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group
Asch Studies-Demonstrated the power of conformance/Culture-based and declining in importance
Status-A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others – it differentiates group members
(Important factor in understanding behavior/ Significant motivator)
Status Effects
- On Norms and Conformity-High-status members are less restrained by norms and pressure to conform
-On Group Interaction-High-status members are more assertive, and large status differences limit diversity of ideas and creativity
Size- Twelve or more members is a “large” group, Seven or fewer is a “small” group Attribute | Small | Large | Speed | X | | Individual Performance | X | | Problem Solving | | X | Diverse Input | | X | Fact-finding Goals | | X | Overall Performance | X | |

Size Effects
Social Loafing-The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually
Caused by- equity concerns -a diffusion of responsibility (free riders)
Managerial Implications
Build in individual accountability
Prevent social loafing by:
-Setting group goals
-Using peer evaluation
-Distributing group rewards based on individual effort
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
Question: Is the more cohesive a