Aim: How do scientist “do” science? By using the scientific method
-Scientist study the environment by using the scientist method
1. State the Problem
2. Research and Gather Information
3. Form a Hypothesis
4. Design and carry out an experiment
5. Record and Interpret Data
6. Draw a Conclusion
* Share Results
* Any Scientific Theory or hypothesis is only as good as the evidence that supports it
- Coperwicus͢͢͢ → Heliocentric “Sun Central” ↑
-Galileo → proved it
-Science is a work in progress
The Scientific Method: 4 Main Steps
Step 1. Observations= gather information
-accomplish observation by using your senses and scientific instruments (measuring, hearing, seeing, etc.)
Step 2. Analysis=process information -organize data -data classification -ask questions
Step 3. Synthesis= Theorize/Hypothesize -Draw Inferences *Inference- conclusion based upon observation -Answer Questions
Step 4. Hypothesis Testing=repeat observation -Devise Experiments -Formulate *Scientific Models- a pattern of explanations used to answer scientific questions
-Scaled Physical Objects
-Graphs and Diagrams
-Charts and Data
-Mathematical Equations * Magnification A = Diameter B Magnification B Diameter A
Ex. 100x = Xmm 400x 1.5mm 400X = 150mm X = .375mm * Field diameter and magnification are inversely related
-Abstract Mental Pictures * A Rotating Model of DNA * Watson and Crick (1953) constructed the first DNA model based by an X-Ray diffraction picture they appropriated from Rosalind Franklin.
Aim: What is the nature of science?
-The nature and purpose of science is to…
1) Investigate and understand nature
2) Explain events in nature * Methodological Naturalism
3) Use scientific explanation to make useful predictions
Ex. Like weather forecasting
-Although science is a subject of study, more importantly it is an organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
-Science is always correcting itself. Science is a self-correcting process.
-How do scientists begin their investigation?
Observation- the use of the human sense, sometimes extended by instruments, to gather evidence=data * observations can be qualitative (involving characteristic) or quantitative (involving numbers or measurements)
-What do scientists do after making these observations? Scientist draw inferences
Inference- a logical interpretation of observational evidence
-How does a hypothesis differ from an interpretation of the evidence, a hypothesis is a formal statement proposed to serve as an explanation of as an answer to a scientific question.
Inference- interpretation of the evidence
Hypothesis- formal statement= explanation- an answer to a scientific question
-Once a hypothesis is proposed, is that it?
Scientific explanations are always temporary. Once proposed a hypothesis must be tested.
-Why must hypothesis be tested?
Any scientific inference, hypothesis or theory is valid only when supported by evidence. If contradictory information is discovered, these explanations can be refuted (deposed)
-How do scientists work?
To test hypothesis, scientist must perform detailed observation or perform experiments. * We will examine the evolution of an important biology concepts=the difference between living things and non-living things. * Around 3000B.C, Aristotle studied nature and tried to explain his observations through reasoning. * He proposed that living things possess a “vital force” and non-living things do not.
*Aristotle said the universe is moving
*Natural Philosophy was science until around the 18th century.
-About 400, people began to perform experiments to test some of Aristotle’s assumptions
1) State the Problem: For years people observed maggots from decaying meat. * Problem: How do