Another factor is poor, overcrowded housing. This could be due to a lack of space to carry out school work. A study by Douglas in 1964 examined the educational pathways of a large group of children born in March 1946. He categorised them into those who lived in satisfactory housing and those who lived in unsatisfactory housing. He found that the unsatisfactory group had lower educational abilities.
A lack of funds to buy educational resources can also be attributed to educational underachievement. Working Class parents are less likely to be able to afford resources such as: books, educational toys and private tutors. A 2013 study by the Office for National Statistics found that in the poorest households, 29% had no computer, 36% had no internet, and this is compared to 99% in the richest households. Students without resources like the internet may not be able to complete coursework at home and could feel socially excluded.
6) One educational factor that may cause educational underachievement is linguistic deprivation. Bernstein suggests that working class people speak in ‘Restricted Codes’, a shorthand speech consisting of a narrow vocabulary. Whereas, middle class people speak in ‘Elaborated Codes’, the use of full sentences and a wider vocabulary. Due to the fact that education is geared for Elaborated Codes, with teachers, assessments and resources all set at that standard, working class children are bound to disadvantage working class children.
A difference in attitude can