Medication revision Essay

Submitted By rachaelbeavis
Words: 823
Pages: 4

Meds Revision

Medication: Any chemical preparation used in medical treatment to cure illness or relieve symptoms.
➢ Medications work by controlling changes in biochemical or physiological processes in the body by altering body fluids, cell membranes or interacting with receptor sites

Therapeutic Evaluation: Involves making a judgement of the medications safety and effectiveness. Monitor via blood screening

Pharmacology: Study of the action of medications in living organisms

Pharmacotherapy: The use of medications to treat disease

Pharmacodynamics: What the medication does to the body

Pharmacokinetics: What the body does to the medication. There are 4 major actions:
➢ Absorption
➢ Distribution
➢ Metabolism
➢ Excretion

Factors affecting absorption:
➢ Form of medication (liquid/solid/gas)
➢ Food – Can delay absorption
➢ Acidity of the stomach – May stop or limit

For absorption to occur the correct form of medication must be given by he intended route.

Side effects: Are the known and sometimes expected reactions to a medication
➢ If side effects become worse the dose may have to be reduced, ceased or intervals between doses increased

Adverse Reaction: Unpredictable and not related to usual effects of medication
➢ Can be caused by an allergy or genetic disorder
➢ Responses include rashes, swelling, jaundice

Toxicology: Study of the nature, properties, identification, effect and treatment of poisons, including adverse medication reactions

Organ responsible for drug elimination: Kidneys

Organ used for metabolism: Liver

Polypharmacy: A client who is on 5 or more medications

Medications Interaction: Medications interact with other drugs

Factors that create change when it comes to administration of drugs:
➢ New technologies
➢ Popularity of medicines
➢ Availability
➢ New uses
➢ Improves understanding of diseases

Quality use of medicines (QUM)

Goal of pyramid relies on 4 faces

4 faces of pyramid:
➢ Health Professionals (nurses, pharmacists, doctors)
➢ Regulatory (government, policy, developers)
➢ Consumers
➢ Industry (medication companies

3 levels of pyramid:
➢ Level 1 Awareness
➢ Level 2 Knowledge and skills
➢ Level 3 Action and evaluation

Acts of Parliament:
➢ Poisons Act 1964
➢ Controlled Substances Act 1984
➢ Health Practitioner Regulation National Law Act (2009)

Preparing Medications

Medications are produced in three forms:
➢ Solids
➢ Liquids
➢ Gases

Solids: Can be administered via oral, topical, rectal or vaginal routes
➢ Tablets
➢ Capsules
➢ Lozenge
➢ Ointments
➢ Cream
➢ Paste
➢ Powder
➢ Suppositories
➢ Pessaries

Liquid: Three types, mixtures, suspensions and emulsions
➢ Mixtures
➢ Syrups
➢ Elixirs
➢ Drops
➢ Tinctures
➢ Liniments
➢ Paint
➢ Suspensions
➢ Emulsions

Gaseous: Used in specific circumstances, and can relate to any of the following
➢ Oxygen
➢ Anaesthesia – local or general

Medication orders to be valid:
➢ Clients full name
➢ Date of medication order
➢ Name of medication (generic)
➢ Form of medication
➢ Dosage or strength required
➢ Route
➢ Frequency
➢ Duration
➢ Signature of prescriber
➢ Special considerations (before or after food)

6 Rights:
➢ Right Dose
➢ Right Patient
➢ Right Documentation
➢ Right Medication
➢ Right Time
➢ Right Route

Additional Rights:
➢ Right effect
➢ Never administer a medication you do not know
➢ Clients rights/education

9 Schedules

Schedule 1: Blank

Schedule 2: Pharmacy Medicines

Schedule 3: Pharmacist Only Medicines

Schedule 4: Prescription Only Medicines

Schedule 5: Caution

Schedule 6: Caution or Poison

Schedule 7: Dangerous

Schedule 8: Controlled Drug

Schedule 9: Prohibited Substances

Schedules 4 and 8 are most important to nurses
Mediation Groups

Antacid: Neutralise Stomach Acidity
➢ Magnesium Hydroxide (Mylanta)
➢ Calcium Carbonate (Cal Sup)

Analgesic: Pain relief