Herberg's theory can be seen as both a personality and an acognitve theory of motivation. He hypothesized that everyone had both hygiene and motivational needs. In addition, he specified that the context of the job, the hygiene factors, could only create dissatisfaction, and only the content of the job, the motivators, could stimulate people to higher levels of performance.
The women gained satisfaction from their freedom and control over their working environment
Six individuals became a team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment
Group norms are crucial and may be influenced more by informal than official group leaders.
Communication between workers and managers and workers and co-workers influences morale and output
Workers are affected by the degree of interest shown in them by their managers. The influence of this motivation is known as the Hawthorne effect.
The consequences of Mayo’s work were enormous. He opened up the field of industrial psychology and industrial sociology. Mayo’s approach became known as the human relations school of management. In Taylor’s era the key person was the engineer. The winners of Mayo’s work were personnel departments.
Maslow and the hierarchy of need (1908 – 1970)
Maslow�s level of human need Business implications
Physical needs, e.g. for food, shelter and warmth
Pay levels and working conditions
Safety needs, e.g. security, a safe structured environment, stability, freedom from anxiety
Job security, a clear job role/description, clear lines of accountability (only one boss)
Social needs, e.g. belonging, friendship, contact
Team working, communication, social facilities
Esteem needs, e.g. strength, self-respect, confidence, status and recognition
Status, recognition for achievement, power, trust
Self-actualisation, e.g. self-fulfilment, to become everything that one is capable of becoming
Scope to develop new skills and meet new challenges and to develop one’s full potential
Key issues raised by Maslow
Do all humans have the same set of needs?
Ore are there some people who need no more from a job than money?
Do different people have different degrees of needs, for example are some highly motivated by the need for power, while others are satisfied by social factors? If so, the successful manager would be one who can understand and attempt to meet the differing needs of his or her staff.
Can anyone’s needs ever be said to be fully satisfied? Perhaps the hierarchy diagram should have an open top to suggest that the human desire for achievement is limitless.
Maslow’s work had a huge influence on McGregor and Herzberg.
Herzberg’s Two factor theory
Motivators (can create positive satisfaction) Hygiene factors (can create job dissatisfaction)
Company policy and administration (the rules, paperwork and red tape)