Motivation is the internal force which is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act. A Gallup shows that only 26% of employees are actively engaged in their jobs. And more than half (55%) of employees have no enthusiasm for their work. Furthermore, 19% of employees uninterested or negative about their work that they poison the workplace to the point that companies might be better off if they called in sick. (USA Today, 5/20/2001)Lack of motivation is big issue for modern companies. Indeed, intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors cause the motivation happen. Intrinsic factors include need, interest, faith and world outlook. Extrinsic factors involve goal, stress, responsibility and obligation. There are two kinds of motivation based on nature, physiological motivation and social motivation. Physiological motivation is a concept which focuses on the physiological need such as food and water. Social motivation focuses on the society and culture background. To the Organizational Behavior, Motiva tion is a very important portion to study. I am going to review and discuss four different approaches to motivation: Dual-Factor Theory, Path-Goal Theory (expectancy theory), Maslow’s Need Hierarchy and Behavior Modification.
Dual-Factor Theory Review: Fredrick Herzberg expanded Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and built a more specific theory about motivation. He interviewed 200engineers and accountants in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who were asked what made them feel bad about their jobs (dissatisfier) and what made them feel good about their jobs (satisfier).Herzberg found that the factors causing job satisfaction were different from those causing job dissatisfaction. He developed the motivation-hygiene theory (dual-factor theory) to explain these results. Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees. Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not lead to higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
Dual-Factor Theory has another name is Motivator-Hygiene Theory. The factor which is made employees feel satisfied is called “motivator factor”. The factor which is made employees feel uncomfortable is called “hygiene theory”. Hygiene theory is the factor that can delete the dissatisfaction but it cannot bring a positive attitude to the employees. On the other hand, people can have better performance and motivation in “motivation theory”. Hygiene Factors include working conditions, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company policies, administration and interpersonal relations. Motivating Factors include achievement, recognition, growth, advancement, interest in job, responsibility and challenges. Assessment:
Advantage: Herzberg’s dual-factor theory helps managers get the point that the content of work is very important, especially in the relationship of job enrichment. Path-Goal theory tells managers a truth that how important the content of work is. In the meanwhile, it also provides a new way to improve staff's enthusiasm and creativity, in order to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations.
Disadvantages: Critics of Herzberg’s theory argue that the two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. Furthermore, job satisfaction does not necessarily imply a high level of motivation or productivity. This theory is lack of accuracy. In fact, the people in different occupations and sectors have different responses to Dual-Factor Theory. Many behavioral scientists think that whether this theory is related to work environment factors or job factors, it plays a key role in motivation.