Must Knows 1 Essay

Submitted By tinanajm98
Words: 5282
Pages: 22

Iron Age
1300 B.C.E.
Characterized by the widespread use of iron and steel
Iron replaced bronze when used for tools
Provided more powerful weapons
The easy availability of coal for manufacturing iron and the strength of the metal made it popular
Steel was best for tools and weapons but difficult to produce
Began in Mesopotamia (1300 B.C.E.), spread to India and Europe (1200 B.C.E.) China (600 B.C.E.) and Japan (100 B.C.E.)
Zoroastrianism took roots in India during the Iron Age

Beginnings of Bronze Age and early civilizations
3000 B.C.E.
Shift away from stone tools and weapons
Development of trade routes
Development of ideographic and syllabic writing
Indus Valley Civilization: irrigation, ceramics, and construction, undeciphered writing system, strong central control
Egypt: construction of pyramids and tombs, mummification, math, astronomy, medicine, and engineering
Mesopotamia: constructing canals to fields, use of cuneiform, 3 classes, fear and temples for gods
Full adaption of bronze
Heavy use of metals and developing trade networks

Beginnings of agriculture
8000 B.C.E.
Neolithic period
Transition from hunter gatherer societies to sedentary societies based in villages and towns
Series of independent discoveries
Occurred first in the Middle East
Fertile Crescent
Middle East: domestication of emmer wheat and barley
Africa: domestication of sorghum, teff, and manioc
Central America: domestication of maize/corn
South America: domestication of potatoes and quinoa
India/east Africa: domestication of rice

Animism
Dates back to Paleolithic age
Earliest known form of religion in which people worshipped things in nature
Belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or at least embody some kind of life-principle
Belief that there is no separation between the spiritual and physical world
Souls and spirits exist in all things
Shared belief among all religions
Usually found among hunter-gatherer tribes

Arth-sastra
3000 C.E.
Ancient Indian treatise on government
Written by Kautilya, a crafty elderly Brahmin
Advisor of Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan empire
Presents schemes for enforcing and increasing the collection of tax revenues
Prescribes the use of spies
Coldly pragmatic guide to political success and survival
“My enemy’s enemy is my friend”

Aryans
1000 B.C.E.
Immigrants who arrived at the Ganges River Valley from Persia or Central Asia
Iron tools allowed for a population boom
Relatively light-skinned
Settled with the Harrappans in India
Vedas suggested the beginning of the caste system
Spoke Indo-Aryan languages

Ashurbanipal
668-627 B.C.E.
One of the last kings of the Neo-Assyrian empire
Palace was located in Nineveh
Archaeologists have discovered more than 25,000 tablets or fragments that make up the famous Library of Ashurbanipal
Contained official documents and literary and scientific texts
Origin of much of our knowledge of Mesopotamian culture
Popular king known for his cruel actions toward his enemies

Assyrians
900-600 B.C.E.
Came from northern Mesopotamia
Created the Neo-Assyrian empire
Empire extended from western Iran to Syria-Palestine
Used force and terror and exploited the wealth and labor of their subjects
Preserved and continued the scientific and cultural developments of Mesopotamian culture
Controlled the Tigris River and the Fertile Crescent
Created a new kind of empire dedicated to the enrichment of the imperial center
Controlled international commerce through the empire

Axum/Ethiopia
Christian state in Africa that developed Coptic Christianity because of the strong Muslim influence and isolation from other branches of Christianity
Identified as Ethiopia in medieval writings
Was a naval and trading power that ruled northwest Africa for 1,000 years
Had a long relationship with Islam

Babylonians
People of the city of Babylon
Most important city in Mesopotamia
Was particularly important under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar
Became a major political…