I. What Is Nutrition?
A. Nutrition is the science that studies food and how food nourishes our bodies and influences our health.
II. Why Is Nutrition Important?
A. Nutrition is one of several factors contributing to wellness.
1. Wellness is a multidimensional, lifelong process that includes physical, emotional, and spiritual health.
B. A healthful diet can prevent some diseases and reduce your risk for others.
1. Nutrient deficiencies can cause serious illnesses.
2. A healthful diet can reduce risk for chronic diseases.
III. What Are Nutrients?
A. Nutrients are chemicals found in foods that are critical to human growth and function.
B. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are nutrients that provide energy.
1. Energy is expressed in units of kilocalories (kcal).
a. Carbohydrates provide 4 kcal per gram.
b. Alcohol provides 7 kcal per gram.
c. Fats provide 9 kcal per gram.
d. Protein provides 4 kcal per gram.
2. Carbohydrates are a primary fuel source for active bodies.
a. Sources of carbohydrate include grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, dairy products, seeds, and nuts.
3. Fats provide energy and other essential nutrients.
a. Fat is an important energy source for our bodies at rest and during low-intensity exercise. b. Foods that contain fats are important sources of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids.
i. Solid fats include butter, lard, and margarine. ii. Liquid fats include vegetable oils.
c. Cholesterol is a form of lipid that is synthesized in our body, but it can also be consumed in the diet.
4. Proteins support tissue growth, repair, and maintenance.
a. Proteins can provide energy, but are not a primary source.
b. Proteins play a major role in growth, repair, and maintenance by assisting in many body functions.
c. Sources of protein include meat and dairy products, and to a lesser extent, vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, and legumes.
C. Vitamins and minerals assist in the regulation of biological processes.
1. Vitamins are classified as water soluble and fat soluble.
2. Vitamins and minerals are needed in relatively small amounts and are classified as micronutrients. 3. All minerals maintain their structure no matter what environment they are in.
4. Major minerals are required in amounts greater than 100 mg per day.
5. Trace minerals are required in amounts less than 100 mg per day.
D. Water supports all body functions. Sources of water include fluids, as well as solid foods.
IV. What Is a Healthful Diet?
A. A healthful diet is adequate.
1. An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, and fiber to maintain health.
B. A healthful diet is moderate.
C. A healthful diet is balanced.
D. A healthful diet is varied.
V. How Can I Figure Out My Nutrient Needs?
A. Use the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) to figure out your nutrient needs.
1. DRIs are for healthy people only.
2. DRIs for most nutrients consist of these values:
a. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) represents the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half of healthy individuals.
b. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the nutrient requirements of 97 to 98 percent of healthy individuals.
c. Adequate Intake (AI) is a recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people.
d. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health.
e. Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is the average dietary energy intake to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult.
f. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) specify the range of intakes for an energy nutrient.
B. Follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to reduce risk of chronic disease.
1. Balance Calories to maintain weight.
2. Reduce consumption of foods and food components of…