1. What is malnutrition?
Deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrietns, alone or in combination, any of which can take a toll on health over time
2. What are the six kinds of nutrients? Which of these nutrients provide energy?
Water, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Carbs, fat, protein
3. What is the major function of vitamins and minerals? Give some examples.
To provide nutrients that the body can’t make itself, supplements
4. What does the word essential mean in nutrition?
If not ingested a person will develop deficiencies
5. How many calories per gram does carbohydrate have? Protein? Fat?
Carbs-4 protein-4 fat-9
6. Know how to calculate calories based on grams of macronutrients and percentage of calories.
7. What is important to remember when deciding if nutrition information is accurate?
Science behind the research
8. What 3 things should someone do to make an effective change?
Diet, exercise, sleep
9. What is nutrient density? Determine if a food is more or less nutrient dense than another.
Food rich with nutrients
10. How do you ensure a person is a nutrition expert? Are all nutritionist qualified to give nutrition advice?
Graduation from a university after completing a program of dietetics
1. Why were the ULs created and what groups benefits the most from this information?
ULs were created to let people know when to limit their intake of certain nutrients. This information is most helpful to epole who take supplements
2. What are the AMDRs for each of the energy-yielding nutrients? Know how to calculate how much a person should get of each of the energy-yielding nutrients based on AMDR recommendations.
Carbs 45-65% Protein 10-35% Fat 20-35%
3. On average, how much should you aim for of the DRI recommendations?
4. Why is it beneficial to choose whole grains over refined grains?
Refined grains lack nutritional value but will load a person up with abundant energy
5. What is the recommended amount of whole grains per day?
6. How should someone build a meal using the MyPlate graphic?
¼ plate fruits, ¼ plate vegetables, ¼ plate grains, ¼ plate protein, side of dairy
7. What order must the ingredients be listed in? Why is this important?
Desending order of predominance weight
8. What are Daily Values and what are they based on? What is the best use for Daily values?
DV is based on 2000 calories to fit a basic persons diet, DV’s can be used to compare daily allowances of certain food vs each other
9. How do you know if a food has a good source or high in a nutrient? (Table 2-6, other terms)
Fat free, zero calories, fresh, good source, high in fiber, light, healthy
1. How does the intestine distribute nutrients? Fat?
2. Where does blood go directly after the intestine and why?
Liver, alters nutrients for specific purposes
3. Where are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins broken down?
Fat- mouth protein-stomach, small intestine, carbs- intestine
4. What is bile and what does it do?
Digestive fluid made in liver and released in small intestine, aids in fat and oil digestion
5. Know what each organ does in the digestion process (See Figure 3-9)
6. What is the job of the villi/microvilli?
Villi- makes surface area bigger microvilli- traps nutrients
7. How can you prevent and treat gas, constipation and diarrhea?
Diet, relieve stress
8. What causes heartburn and ways to prevent it?
Back flow of stomach acid into esophagus
9. What are the functions of the kidneys?
Regulate blood pressure, excrete waste
10. What is glycogen, where is it stored, and how much is stored?
Carb, stored in liver
11. What is moderate drinking defined as?
Woman- one per day man – two per day
12. What is considered a serving of alcohol?
5 oz wine, 12 oz beer, 10 oz wine cooler, 1 ½ oz liquor
13. What happens when alcohol enters the stomach?
Empty- rapid absorption full- slow