Nutrition: Nutrition and Essential Nutrients Essay

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NUSC 1165: Fundamentals of Nutrition
Chapter 1 Objectives

Define the terms nutrition and nutrient.

Describe two changes in American eating patterns that have increased chronic disease.

Define essential nutrients, fortified foods, zoochemicals, and phytochemicals.

Become familiar with the classification of nutrients, and how nutrients function in general.

Discuss how nutrition can affect your health in the short term and long term.

Become familiar with malnutrition, undernutrition, and overnutrition.

List factors other than nutrition that affect food choices.

Explain the concept of nutrient density.

Explain the importance of variety, balance, and moderation in selecting a healthy diet.

Name the steps of the scientific method.

Compare and contrast the following studies:

Epidemiological, depletion-repletion, and balance studies.

Discuss why animals and cells are used to study human nutrition.

Discuss how the ethics of humans and animal studies is monitored.

Name 3 points to consider when evaluating the reliability of nutritional information, along with identifying both reliable and non-reliable sources.

NUSC 1165: Fundamentals of Nutrition
Chapter 1 Study Guide
Section 1.1: Nutrition and our Diet
1. Define the word “nutrition” in your own words:

2. Foods provides:
Nutrients, which have the following 3 roles in the body:
_______________, ______________________, and _____________________
Energy: Measured in kilocalories

3. Current Dietary Intake Habits and Trends in the United States:
Parents are working and therefore less time spent on preparing meals.
Increased availability of canned, frozen, microwave, and snack foods.
Increase in food consumption and calories (larger portion sizes, more choices, eating out)
Less consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, seafood and low -fat dairy.
Contain nutrients that promote health.
High consumption of meat, fat, and sugars. (Increases risk for chronic disease)

4. _____________, _____________, _______________, and ________________ are four of the top 10 causes of death, attributed primarily to poor nutrition intake.

Section 1.2: Food Provides Nutrients

1. Essential nutrients such as vitamin C are readily made in the body. True or False (If false, explain below).

2. Foods to which one or more nutrients have been added are called __________________________.
(ie. Calcium in orange juice)

3. Substances that comprises dietary supplements can include:

4. Phytochemicals are nonessential nutrients found in animal foods. True or False (If false, explain below).

5. List the energy content for the following nutrients below:
Carbohydrates _______________________
Protein _______________________
Lipids _______________________
Alcohol _______________________

6. Organic nutrients contain the element __________________.

7. The micronutrients consist of vitamins and minerals. How are they different?

8. Energy Yielding Nutrients:
Carbohydrates: Simple and Complex Carbohydrates; Fiber
Lipids: Triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids.
Protein: Comprised of amino acids.

9. The functions of water include: ____________, __________________, and __________________.

10. Nutrient Functions:
Energy: Making new compounds (hair proteins); fuel exercise.
Structure: Cell membranes (lipids); ligaments, tendons, muscles (protein); bones (calcium and phosphorus)
Regulation: Body Temperature (water); Coenzymes (B Vitamins); Hormones (Protein)

11. ______________________ is malnutrition caused by eating insufficient amounts of energy- providing foods, while ___________________ is malnutrition due to consuming an excess of foods that provide energy, and can result in an adverse or toxic reaction. 13. Risk for disease include _______________ and _____________________.
Section 1.3: Food Choices for a Healthy…