The Axial skeleton is the central core of the human body housing and protecting it's vital organs. The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones
The functions of the Axial Skeleton
The Axial Skeleton has 2 functions. The first is to support and protect the organs in the dorsal and ventral cavities. The second being that it creates a surface for the attachment of muscles.
The Appendicular Skeleton
Of the 206 bones in the human body 126 of these make up the appendicular skeleton. The bones of the Appendicular Skeleton are the Clavicle, Scapula, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpal etc.
The functions of the Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton is unfused whcih gives it a greater range of motion (unlike the axial skeleton) making one of the primary functions of the skeleton, locomotion, possible. The appendicular skeleton also protects some of the major organs.
Functions of Skeletal System
Support - It provides the framework of the body and supports tghe softer tissues, also provides points of attachment for most muscles
Protection - provides physical protection for many of the organs, e.g. ribcage-lungs, skull-brain
Movement - bones are attached to muscles, so when the muscles contact/relax this causes the bones to move. The bones are also anchors for joints e.g. elbows
Mineral Storage - Bones store many minerals including calcium and phosphorus. these minerals are released from the bones when reqiured, helping to maintain the balance of mineralsin the body
Blood cell production - some larger bones contain red bone marrow, where red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are produced.
Three Classifications of joints
Types of joints - A joint is the point where two or more bones meet. There are three main types of joints; Fibrous (immoveable), Cartilaginous (partially moveable) and the Synovial (freely moveable) joint.
Fibrous (synarthrodial): This type of joint is held together by only a ligament. Examples are where the teeth are held to their bony sockets and at both the radioulnar and tibiofibular joints
Cartilaginous (synchondroses and sympheses): These joints occur where the connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage for example between vertebrae in the spine.
Synovial (diarthrosis): Synovial joints are by far the most common classification of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have a synovial capsule (collagenous structure) surrounding the entire joint, a synovial membrane (the inner layer of the capsule) which secretes synovial fluid (a lubricating liquid) and cartilage known as hyaline cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bones. There are 6 types of synovial joints which are classified by the shape of the joint and the movement