Overview of History of Russia Essay

Submitted By Wendy55
Words: 1404
Pages: 6

Overview of Russia
Bloody Sunday (Jan. 22 1905) * Causes: * Workers wanted fair wages, fewer hours, better working conditions * Father Gapon = leader * Led Peaceful protest * Imperial Guard fired on crowd * Results: * People blame on Tsar * Led into the 1905 revolution and 1917 February Revolution

Revolution of 1905 * Causes: * Bloody Sunday want Tsar to improve conditions and have a constitutional monarchy, not completely autocratic monarchy (liberals & intellectuals). * Economy sucks * Upset b/c of the Russo-Japanese war. * Unsuccessful * Port Arthur Lost * Russian Baltic Fleet lost battle * Russian Army defeated at Mukden (lost 80k men) * Wave of political and social unrest all over the Russian empire * Worker Strikes * Military mutiny * Results: * Tsar Nicholas II signed the October Manifesto * Granted Civil rights (freedoms) * Creation of political parties * Universal Suffrage * Establishment of Duma as central Legislative body * Tsar still was “supreme autocratic power” * Sole power to declare war * Sign treaties * Replace tsar ministers * Absolute power to veto legislation * Power to dismiss Duma/re-elect * Duma elected 4 times

Russian Revolution – February 1917 * Broke out spontaneously in Petrograd * Cause: people suffering from economic & social problems (WWI) * Many men died at war mutinies and desertion common * 6 million died; Morale low * Inadequate supply for army * Then Nicholas ii became the new commander in chief of army * Associated monarchy with unpopular war * Nicholas = poor leader * While on the front lines, he was unable to govern his country * Tsarina = ineffective ruler * Aristocratic/landowners cruel to peasants * Working conditions * Food shortages/Famine * Military failures * Russo-Japanese War * Bloody Sunday * Revolution of 1905 * Petrograd’s largest industrial plant Putilov, announced strike * Rallies for International Women’s Day turned into economic and political gatherings * Bread Riots and Industrial riots * Women marched to nearby factories bringing over 50k workers on strike * All industrial enterprises shut down * Tsar ordered army to suppress riot through force, but army mutinied! * Tsar Abdicated throne on March 2 * Nicholas nominated his brother for throne, but brother turned down * Placed under house arrest by Provisional Government

The Provisional Government and Petrograd Soviet * Provisional Government * Chairman = Prince Lvov * Issue would arise because he’s part of aristocracy * Center Left (liberals) * Self-proclaimed by committee members of old Duma (not elected) * Petrograd Soviet * Socialists formed a rival party * Dual authority worked out at the beginning * Lenin wrote his April Thesis * Provisional Government = bourgeois * Must place power in the hands of the proletariat * Nationalization of all lands * Government ownership * Union of all banks * Results: * Laid groundwork for October Revolution * Persuaded Bolsheviks of his arguments

July Days * Failed movement against the Provisional Government * Not organized * Lenin organized failed to direct an organized coup * Military attacked the peaceful demonstration * Provisional Government survived b/c of lack of leadership

Alexander Kerensky * Replaced Lvov as head of the Provisional Government * Had to deal with challenges of WWI * Heavy losses * Desertion numbers still very