Grounds of Sociology:
-15th century: 2 fundamental advancements on communicating their thoughts (Gutenberg printing press and challenge of the world view)
-16th century: religion became an individual project, distinct from their family, tribe or clan
The catholic lock on society was broken and individual project became
-18th century: Kant, Hegal: developed the power of reason, enlightenment
-rise of reason: 3 revolutions
a) Industrial revolution 1712 (birth of the steam engine). Ended up giving us mass production (development of the automobile)
b) American revolution: political- 1776: politics of self-determination, society is no longer governed by mobility of individuals. Sovanerity of the people, the formal expression of human rights.
c) French Revolution: contributed a negative/ destructive force of dismantling the monarchy (natural division of social classes) Removed the kings so that power could be distributed equally
Charles Darwin applies his view points of critical thinking to life’s processes.
Sociology: the word:
Coined 1838 by Comte
SOCIO= socius,( associate, friend, companion)
LOGY= logos (word)
Paradigm is a set of propositions that deliver a particular perspective and attempts to describe a set of circumstances and facts; gives a basic image of society.
a) Karl Marx: social conflict paradigm
b) Durkheim: structural functionalism paradigm
c) Weber: symbolic interactionism
Karl Marx 1818-1883:
-conflicted with religion because father gave up religion to practice law and mother was of a different religion
-journalism in Germany and ended up in England
-kept getting shut down by Paris and Prussia
-resorted to moving to England to a safe place to live after he was accused of high treason
-Give up his home country for his social activism
-discovered the law of development of human history
-mankind must first of all eat, drink, have shelter and clothing, before it can pursue politics, science, art and religion and therefore the production of the immediate material means of substance from the foundation upon which the state institutions, legal conceptions, art and ideas on religion.
-MATERIALIST because he believes that material items must come first before
Life is easy. Life is struggle.
How you get bread on your table will determine how you think about life.
Society is divided into two basic sections:
a) Those people who own the stuff at the base of the triangle “BOURGEOIS” owners of the means by which material is made
b) “PROLETARIAT” the workers of society, who have too trade their labour in order to receive the thing at the base of the triangle
There is always class struggle and proletariats are alienated:
a) from the act at working, my own time, my own labour
b) from the products of my labour (ex. Still have to pay for a bagel you made at Tim’s)
c) from what it means to be a person, not contributing to own identity, sacrifice humanness
d) from other humans and the potential to be human (view other people as a part in an assembly line)
Solution for alienation is REVOLUTION. For the proletariat to commence a revolution because they have nothing left to loose and fight against the bourgeois for equal social classes.
Emile Durkheim 1858-1917:
-father was influential in the rabbi community
-involved in journalism, teaching, government at the turn of the century
-tight knit family
-Sociological method: extend the scope of scientific rationalism to cover human behaviour and it is capable of being reduced to relationships of cause and effect which by an operation no less rational can then be transformed into the rules of action for the future
-IDEALIST because looking for rules of human behaviour but partly a MATERIALIST as well
Collective Existence: looking for the glue that holds society together transcendence- the experience that I am myself and that I am part of something