BACKGROUND: In 1870, Dmitri Mendeleev first proposed a new way of studying and organizing the then known 63 elements. The modern form of the table has been modified and improved many times since Mendeleev’s tables. Pioneers like Moseley (1913) and Seaborg (1941) have made the properties of the elements much simpler to study and understand. In this activity, you are going to discover some of the trends of the properties that exist on the modern periodic table. To do this, you are going to graph these properties.

OBJECTIVES: The student will be able to… define some of the properties of the element graph the properties of the elements (use Z = 1 through Z = 36 only) determine the general trends found on the periodic table

PROCEDURE:

1. On your calculator or in Excel, graph the trend of density. The graph should have the atomic number on the x-axis and density on the y-axis. Answer the questions about this graph and what conclusions you would draw. See the back of your textbook for density values.

2. On your calculator or in Excel, graph the trend of Melting Point and Boiling Point. The graph should have the atomic number on the x-axis and temperature (MP & BP) on the y-axis. Place both on the same graph. See the back of your textbook for melting point and boiling point values.

3. Answer the questions about this graph and what conclusions you would draw.

4. On your calculator or in Excel, graph the trend of first ionization energy (potential). The graph should have the atomic number on the x-axis and ionization energy on the y-axis.

5. Answer the questions about this graph and what conclusions you would draw.

6. On your calculator or in Excel, graph the trend of electronegativity. The graph should have the atomic number on the x-axis and electronegativity on the y-axis.

7. Answer the questions about this graph and what conclusions you would draw.

8. On your calculator or in Excel, graph the trend of atomic radius. The graph should have the atomic number on the x-axis and atomic radius on the y-axis.

9. Answer the questions about this graph and what conclusions you would draw.

CALCULATIONS:

Density Graph

1. Create the graph as described in the procedure.

2. Define density.

3. What is the trend as you move down a group (column)?

4. What is the trend as you move across a period (row)?

5. On the representation of the periodic table below, draw arrows to represent an increasing density.

Melting and Boiling Point

6. Create the graph as described in the procedure.

7. Define melting and boiling point.

8. What is the trend as you move down a group (column)?

9. What is the trend as you move across a period (row)?

10. On the representation of the periodic table below, draw arrows to represent an increasing temperature (melting and boiling point).

Ionization Energy (potential)

11. Create the graph as described in the procedure.

12. Define ionization energy.

13. What is the trend as you move down a group (column)?

14. What is the trend as you move across a period (row)?

15. On the representation of the periodic table below, draw arrows to represent increasing first ionization energy (potential).

Electronegativity

16. Create the graph as described in the procedure.

17. Define electronegativity.

18. What is the trend as you move down a group (column)?

19. What is the trend as you move across a period (row)?

20. On the representation of the periodic table below, draw arrows to represent an increasing electronegativity.