Philosophy Midterm Notes Essay

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Anselm- the ontological argument. Posteriori truth is a truth that requires experience to be known. Priori- such propositions are knowable prior to, or independently of, experience.
1. god is by definition the greatest being possible.
2. A being who fails to exist in the actual world (while existing in other possible worlds) is less perfect than a being who exists in all possible worlds.
Hence, God exists, necessarily.
“maybe an ant cant conceive of a greater creature than an anteater, but that doesn’t mean that anteaters are the most perfect possible beings.
“conceivablepossible”

Aquinas-all PKG god.
((((1. Motion. Objects in motion are moved by other objects. Causes must precede effects. No infinite cause/effect chains.
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“we should believe what it is useful to believe”

W. K. Clifford- believes that it is wrong always, everywhere, for anyone to believe anything upon insufficient evidence. Says that if we believe anything we will sink back into savagery.

John Hick-evil has not been sent from god. God had the power to make us perfect but we have free will. “soul building”. Natural evil and human evil.
Plato- the myth of the cave. Appearances and reality.

Bertrand Russell- “the value of philosophy”-no definite answer. It is uncertain. Knowledge? Philosophy can equal freedom.

Socrates-main character in myth of the cave.

Mark Twain-“letters from the earth” “there are no accidents”. Satan writes the letters that are against god.

abductive arguments- “taking your best shot” guessing. deductive arguments-valid and invalid. If the premises are true, the conclusion HAS to be true. YES inductive arguments- involves taking a description of some sample and extending the description to items outside the sample. MAYBE

valid and invalid- based on “logical form”. **if there is even a chance that the conclusion could be false when the premise is true, the argument is deductively invald. arguments- reasoning of philosophy. Premises and conclusions.

Consequentialism-
Cogence- an argument is cogent if its valid, if it has true/acceptable premises, and all relevant info has been examined. (aka sound or strong argument).

Soundness of arguments- an argument that is