My research was conducted at the San Diego Zoo on December second. The zoo houses a variety of primates including: prosimians, New World, and Old World, great apes, and small apes. For my research paper I observed the western lowland Gorilla gorilla gorilla. Their enclosure at the zoo was a fairly big landscape with multiple waterfalls. As for toys I didn’t spot any buy there was plenty of tree branches scattered around to climb on. In this enclosure I found there only to be three gorillas. They are located in western and eastern central Africa, within deep rain forests. The vegetation there supplies them with an ample amount of food to take care of their young. The dominant male is called the “Silverback” and is the largest male in the troop. Gorillas exhibit sexual dimorphism, so males are much larger than females. Based on weight a male can get up too 181 kg and a female: 98 kg. Height on the other hand is closer together than weight. A male’s weight can reach up too: 1700 mm and a female is up too 1500 mm. Distinction upon a silverback can easily be spotted because they have a striking silver coloration from their shoulders to rump. Additionally, Male gorillas have a noticeable sagittal crest. The pelage of gorillas ranges from dark brown, to black hair depending on geographic region; with longer faces as well as a broader chest. (Cawthon, 2005) These primates are primarily terrestrial and spend the majority of their lives on the ground. This is where their food is and there is no need to climb trees unless resources are available arboreally. This primate is a herbivore which means that it has a diet of a vegetarian. When it comes to locomotion pattern of gorillas, it is simple to see that they are a quadrupedal animal that exhibits knuckle walking. In apes, the foramen magnum is more posteriorly located and better situated for quadrupedalism. After observing them for only five minutes I quickly came to this conclusion. It is easy to recognize that their foramen magnum is closer towards the back of the skull because when you look at them you can see they don’t have an s-shape spine like humans. While observing a particular gorilla I discovered his teeth had a formation known as C/P3 honing complex. These apes have a large projecting canine, which fits into a space called the diastema behind the lower first premolar. Each time the mouth is closed, the back edge on each upper canine gets sharpened. (Hens, 2010) When looking at their bodies I noticed a distinct difference in their stride. Their locomotion is quadrupedalism, and I wondered why this was? One of the answers lie in their pelvic girdle. Humans are bipeds and have a wide bowl shaped pelvic girdle, which gives us the ability to balance on either foot while walking. Alternatively, gorilla’s have a much longer and narrower pelvic girdle. Their gluteal muscles act as hip extensors and allow forward propulsion when locomoting quadrupedally. While observing their prehensile feet, I noticed that they possess a divergent hallux. A divergent hallux allows gorillas and other non-human primates to have grasping ability (or prehensility) in their feet. (Hens 2010) For the great apes the taxonomic classification of western lowland gorillas is:
Ways to reduce stereotypies of primates housed in zoo exhibits
Bradley Ward (Word count = 1099)
Stereotypies are defined as repetitive, unvarying movements that appear to serve no obvious function and have so far only been observed in captive animals and humans (Broom, 1983; Mostard, 2011). The current understanding of the causes of stereotypies are summed up by Mason and Rushen (2008) as; captive environments continually triggering specific behavioural responses; environments creating…
Anthropology is a very interesting topic to study. It is the study of humankind as biological organisms, cultural beings, past civilizations, and present societies. Anthropology is also broken into 4 different subfields, such as: Physical or Biological Anthropology, Archeology, Cultural Anthropology ((Ethnography) and Linguistic Anthropology.
Physical or Biological Anthropology is the study of human evolution and human variation. Not only do they study human, but also a category called near-humans…
THE DEFINITION OF ANTHROPOLOGY
The term "Anthropology" is derived from the Greek words: anthropos, meaning human or man, and logos meaning study. Thus, Anthropology means the study of humans. The working definition that we will use in this course is given below. ( You will find that important definitions in the lectures are boxed.)
The study of humankind at all times and all places.
Anthropology is a discipline of infinite curiosity about human beings. It focuses on humankind, their…
Human Evolution Evidence
GS104 INTRO to Environmental science
Early human behavior from ancient footprints to stone tools and the earliest symbols and art along with similarities and differences in the behavior of other primate species. Humans are part of the biological group known as primates. Stone tools provide evidence about the technologies, dexterity, particular kinds of mental skills, and innovations that were within the grasp of early human toolmakers. Early…
evolution. Not only our physical traits but also our behavior, our thinking and our mind are a direct result of it.
Although humans are always looking for evidence to prove that intelligence is a characteristic unique to their species, scientific studies have increasingly show that this is not the case. Skills once believed unique to humans such as making and using tools, imitation, having a culture, thinking ahead, self-awareness and adopting another’s point of view have been also identified in animals…
The finding of fossil Ida scientifically known as Darwinius masillae was a mind changer to everyone studying palaeoanthropology. She was named ‘Darwinius’ to commemorate the 200th birth anniversary of Charles Darwin who was the pioneer of the study of evolution. What is now considered the anthropological equivalent of the ‘holy grail’, she was found 20 years ago although the exact unearthing of the fossil is not clear from Messel pit, near Frankfurt in Germany. It was stored in position of a…
solve problems, and they can learn a behavior and teach it to others (Schaik 2003).
Research was not conducted on the orangutan before the 1990’s because researchers believed they were dull, lazy, and not intelligent. It was later found out by studies that Orangutans are slow moving not because they are lazy but because they require such an enormous amount of calories just to live that they don’t waste their precious energy (Russon 2009). The orangutans live in solitude because they are such large…
the study of humans, past and present to understand the complexity of various cultures. In addition, Anthropology builds upon knowledge from social and biological sciences as well as the humanities and physical sciences. Anthropology consists of four subfields which are Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, and Linguistic Anthropology. This essay will demonstrate the variations of these four subfields and what each subfield entails.
Archaeology is the scientific study of…
psychologist Robert M. Yerkes who was interested in learning about nonhuman primates’ behavior.( ) Scientists use these animals because chimpanzees and humans share a common ancestry. Chimpanzee DNA is approximately 96-98 percent identical, and the structure and function of the brain is similar with human brain. As a result, chimpanzees and humans share physiological, emotional, and behavioral traits. In 1940s Yerkes National Primate Reserch Center started to use chimpanzees in medical testing.
matter of survival.
Antipathy in mammals
“In primate evolution, “close relatives” is nearly synonymous with “members of the
substinece group.” That is, in general, a primate, including the human hunter-gatherer, has
more close relatives in his or her subsistence group than in other groups. Thus primates are
evolutionarily predisposed to show ingroup favoritism.”
“prejiduce and ddiscriminatioon have an evolutionary basus, rooted in the nature of primate
and human subsistence groups”