Homeostasis-body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state
Motivation-the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Know the order of it, and what it means as a whole)
POINT: Don't try to achieve your highest goals, it you don't have the foundation for them.
Self-actualization-a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in their own unique way.
Basic emotions (What’s significant about them?)
Facial-feedback hypothesis-the hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions
Nature vs. Nurture debate (Be able to explain what it means)-Nature is the genetic part like eye color & cannot be changed. Nurture is how you were raised like morals or environment.
Nature-Genetics // Nurture-Enviornment
Chromosomes-Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information
Genes-the parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted
DNA-makes up genes
Attachment-the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
Harry Harlow’s experiment
Authoritarian parenting-Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children.
Authoritative parenting-Parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them.
Permissive parenting-Parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although warm, require little of them.
Uninvolved parenting-Parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached.
Erikson’s Eight Psychosocial Stages/Developmental Crises
Piaget’s Four Cognitive Development Stages 1. Sensori-motor period (from birth until age 2)
--Behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects
--Culminates in attaining the concept of object permanence.
--Object permanence: understanding that objects have a continued existence when they disappear from view. 2. Pre-operational stage (from 2-6)
--Characterized by egocentric thought.
--Children cannot adopt alternative viewpoints;
they cannot think from another person’s perspective. 3. Concrete operational stage (6-12)
--Children are able to adopt alternative viewpoints.
--Conservation task: pour water from short, wide glass into tall, thin one
--Concrete operational child understands the amount of water stays the same. 4. Formal operational stage (12 and up)
--Child is not limited to concrete thinking.
--Child can reason abstractly and logically.
Puberty (Common age at onset and trends)
Adolescent suicide (How common is it? What are the warning signs?)
Alzheimer’s disease- A progressive brain disorder that leads to gradual and irreversible decline in cognitive abilities
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
Unconscious (according to Freud)-Part of personality that contains memories, beliefs, feelings urges that you're not aware of.
Id-The raw unorganized, inborn part of a personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.
Ego-The part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world
Superego-According to Sigmund Freud, the final personality structure to develop; it represents the rights and wrongs of society as handed down by a person's parents, teachers, and other important figures
Pleasure Principle-the driving force of the id that seeks immediate gratification of all needs, wants, and urges. In other words, the pleasure principle strives to fulfill our most basic