11 Adolescence, Physical & Cognitive
11 10/28 12 Adolescence, Social & Emotional
Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence
Adolescence and Puberty
Adolescence - Developmental transition between childhood and adulthood entailing majorphysical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes. Begins about age 11 or 12 and typically lasts about a decade. Typically considered to start with the onset of puberty (the process of sexual maturation).
What social conventions do we usually observe for the beginning of adolescence? for the beginning of adulthood? Beginning of puberty When does puberty begin - Typically around 10-13, girls beginning earlier than boys. Adolescent growth spurt - Sharp increase in height and weight that precedes sexual maturity. Boys Spermarche (first ejaculation) - Occurs around age of 13. primary sex characteristics - enlargement and maturation of testes, penis, scrotum, seminal vesicles and prostate gland secondary sex characteristics - broadening of shoulders, narrowing of the hips and waist, growth of pubic, facial, axiallary (armpit) and chest hair, deepening of voice Girls Menarche (first menstruation) - Occurs around age 13. White females later than black females. primary sex characteristics - enlargement and maturation of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina secondary sex characteristics - enlargement of breast and areolae, narrowing of waist, broadening of hips, growth of axiallary hair. What factors affect onset of puberty Health and nutritional factors - Secular trend: Over the last 100 years, better health and nutriotion in western countries has led to quicker onset of puberty. Emotional factors - Close relationship with father related to later onset of puberty in girls. Girls from single parent homes tend to begin puberty earlier than similar girls from 2 parent homes. May be related to pheremones (mate attracting chemicals). Genetic factors - Girls first menstruation has been shown to begin around same time as their mothers. Physical exercise - Strenuous exercise can delay the onset of puberty. Body weight - Larger body weight may lead to earlier onset of puberty. The implications of early and late sexual maturation Boys - Early onset of puberty leads to positive outcome. Strength which leads to dominance in sports (and probably less bullying) leads to higher self-esteem. Also leads to advantages in dating. Girls - Early onset of puberty leads to negative outcomes. Physical changes may be frightening. Girls are less sociable, less expressive, more introverted. Higher risk for mental health problems (depression, disruptive behaviors, eating disorders, substance abuse, and attempted suicide.
How did puberty affect your life?
Formal Opermational stage (Piaget) - The final stage of cognitive development characterized by the ability to think abstractly. Attributed to a combination of