Research: Scientific Method and Research Essay

Submitted By Agnes6028
Words: 4505
Pages: 19

Liverpool John Moores University
Faculty of Education, Health and Community
Centre for Tourism, Events and Food Studies



Summer Semester

Module Leader:
Dr. Martin Selby

Student Name:
Tham Yee Wen

Student Number:

According to Bob, R., Robert W. and Michael, T. (2002), research is a process of intellectual to discovery which has the potential to transform our knowledge and understand of the world around us. However, Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias (1996) states “a scientific principle must be in conducting a research, which managed by a clear research methodology.” The methodologies are considered to be systems of explicit rules and procedures. Which means it is based on the logic, reason and systematic examination of evidence. The model of scientific research applies in most aptly of the physical or natural sciences such as physic or chemistry (Frankfort, N. & Nachmias, 1996). Creswell (2009) has designated three approaches of research design which are quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research. However, this essay will be only discussed in two types of research methods as Creswell (2009) designated, it will be on quantitative and qualitative methods. This work was implemented the purpose to discuss and evaluates the definition, pros and cons of the Qualitative Methods, Quantitative Methods and Secondary data analysis Methods.

According to Ramos (1998), ethical issues that appeared in both quantitative and qualitative research there are the safety and protection of human rights as respondent. However, this are the mainly achieved during the process of information gathered from respondents when doing question survey of the research. However, this use of informed consent is the difficult in quantitative research but practically impossible in qualitative methodologies as the research information gathered is a largely from mysterious.

Quantitative Method
According to Aliaga and Gunderson (2000), quantitative research methods is explaining the phenomena by collecting numerical data that analysed using mathematically based methods in the particular statistics. Quantitative method is determined by the functional or positivist paradigm based on the social reality that has an objective ontological structure and all the individuals are the respondents to this objective (Morgan & Smircich, 1980). Besides that, Smith (1988) had mentioned that there is an objective exiting behind the positivist paradigm that can be identified and explained scientifically. According to Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (2000), quantitative research methods are aims to determine how one thing (a variable) affects another in a population, by quantifying the relationships between variables (the things that measure). While in the research design, there are taking of the measurements, change the conditions, continue the measurements again and then compare each in order to draw the conclusion.

According to Cassell and Symon (1994), quantitative model is the main concerned that measurement that is valid, reliable and specific predict of the cause and effect. Others than that, quantitative research involves in counting and measuring of the events and performing the statistical analysis of a body of numerical data (Smith, 1988). As the assumption of the positivist paradigm, there is an objective truth existing in the world that can be measured and explained scientifically. Therefore, quantitative research is a means of the relationship that can be examined by testing the objectives theories, which able analysed the numbered data by using statistical procedures. After the written report that had been set in structure by starting from introduction, literature review and theory, methodology, result and discussion (Creswell, 2007).

According to