Tuesday, December 4th * DdHhxDdHh * Female=horizontal axis * Male=vertical axis * Segregation of Dd allele * DdxDd= monohybrid cross 4:8:4=1:2:1 ratio * Same thing happens with Hh * When evaluating both genes together remember the product rule probability * 9/16 have both dominant traits * 3/16 have Dd but little hh * 3/16 have dd but HH * 1/16 have dd and hh * But there are many ways that genes can interact with each other to influence development of a trait * Incomplete dominance * RR= red * Rr= pink * Rr= white * RrxRr= RR (1/2), Rr(2/4), rr (1/4) * Genotype x environment interaction = environmental factors influence gene expression * Fruit fly- wings don’t develop (recessive mutation in which the appearance of the trait is altered by the environment) * If raised at a higher temperature, increase rate of production of enzyme, therefore thing wings will grow * Environment influences phenotype and genotype * Siamese cat/Himalayan rabbits * Pigment enzyme is more active in cooler temperature * When body is warmer, there is less pigment (chest) * Refrigerated cats= all chocolate color * Hairless dogs= another gene interaction * No hair= cant tell what color * Epistasis= one trait standing over (masks) the expression of the second trait * Most simple= Dihybrid * For example: complete baldness (bb) masks the hair color gene expression (C- or cc) since there is no hair there to be colored * Dark hair- 9/16 B-C- * Blonde hair- 3/16 B-cc * Bald- 3/16 bbc- * Bald – 1/16 bbcc * =9:3:4 * Agouti (A) * Yellow (A^y) * Yellowxyellow= 2/3 yellow and 1/3 yellow * This is a 2:1 ration * How can get a ratio like that? * How can you get a trait expressed that was masked in the parents * Two heterozygous mate * When two yellow mice are mated, one genotypic class dies. This is a recessive lethal. (you must be homozygous to die) * THE MOST common kind of mutation * Each of us are probably heterozygous at ½ dozen or more different lethal genes * CANNNOT be homozygous or you will die * Basic questions: * What kind of gametes can the parents produce? * BbxBb * Type and proportion of the genotype * What are their phenotypes * Exception! * Females-XX-2 copies * Males-XY- 1 copy * sex linkage = a gene located on the X chromosome * consider the example of a normal female who marries a man with a the recessive sex linked (= X linked) trait “hemophilia” * X^A X^Z x X^a Y * If sperm carries X chromosome= female * About ½ probability of male or female (slightly more male, because Y chromosome is a little smaller) * Depends on dominance in female * Male gets only X chromosome from his mother * Hemophilia cannot pass from father to son, bc dad gives only x chromosomes to daughters * A gene linkage on the x chromosome can differ in the expression in males and females * Higher frequency in color blindness in sons * Sex- linked= located on the X chromosome * Sex-limited= on any chromosome, but the phenotype is present on only one sex * Sex-influenced gene= the trait is more severe or common in one of the sexes * Stomach has no hole * Found in newborns when they have explosive vomiting * More common in 1st born males
Honors Integrated Science 2 Review
Genetics- the Science of Heredity and how traits are inherited
Heredity- The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Dominant- When one trait overpowers or hides the other trait.
Recessive- The trait that is hidden or masked
Genes- Specific traits are carried as genes on chromosomes. Genes are segments of DNA.
Alleles- The alternate forms of a gene. You receive one allele from each parent and have 2 alleles to describe a trait…
blood groups, from that blood transfusions became safer. Plasma, Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are the four components of blood. Blood is made of plasma, which is about ninety percent water. Plasma supply as the main transportation component in the body since it is the liquid part of blood. Red blood cells have a “lifespan” of about 120 days. The function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen throughout the body. Red blood cells have a protein call hemoglobin on their outer surface…
and the Gene Idea
-when ________________ are passed down from parents to offspring
-_______________________ (DNA and proteins)
-___________ (segments of DNA functional product)
-unit of ___________________
-each gene has a specific ___________ on the chromosome
-______________: different version of same gene
-arise from __________________ in DNA sequence of gene
-contain information for organism development
Early thoughts about inheritance
-both __________________ contributed…
Biology Exam Review
Layers of eye:
Sclera: white portion of eye, maintains shape.
Iris: coloured portion of the eye.
Pupil: opening in the center of the eye.
Conjunctiva: mucous membrane layer that covers the sclera.
Lacrinal gland: produces tears Lacrinal Duct: is in the inner edge of eye.
Cornea: transparent, nonvascular layer covering the coloured part of the eye.
Choroid: in between retina and sclera. Rich with blood vessels.
Lens: biconvex structure that helps focus the image onto retina…
a Greek word meaning “falling of”, is a genetically controlled mechanism of cell death where a cell is compelled to commit suicide, marked by a well – defined sequence of morphological changes(1). This begins when a cell receives an internal (eg. DNA damage) or an external (eg. Extracellular death ligands) signal that opens up a series of biochemical reactions that ultimately results in the formation of apoptotic bodies and taken up by macrophages. Apoptosis plays a major role in organ shape development…
planet.. because they all share DNA sequences.. we all share a common ancestor
Earth is about 4.5 billions years old.. no life found dating back that far
100 million species today
humans have been on earth for 200 million years
Taxonomy is the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life on our planet.
Homo sapiens = Latin for human.. should me underlined when written and italicized when typed
Apes share up to 99% of DNA with us
Homo sapiens literally…
will be used against you in a court of law. you have the right to speak to an attorney and during your questioning. If you can not afford a lawyer, one will be provided for you at the government’s expense
The FBI crime lab was created in the 1930’s
DNA evidence was first used in court in the 1980’s
DEA and ATF (governmental agencies) both maintain their own crime labs
Violations of civil law are punished by fines. Civil law is a type of noncriminal law
The case Frye v United States decides what…
in tea that are claimed to promote body clensing
(Reference Feedback loop ) Why does the rejection of the proposal initiate the positive feedback loop?
Because it requires researchers to do more work on and resubmit the proposal which starts the review process again
Which of the following are the two major functions of all life forms?
Reproduction and metabolism
Which of the following dictate the physical and chemical expression of all living beings?
These ____ ions…
important because proteins play a role in normal growth and development. Amino Acids help in the formation of enzymes, hormones and neurotransmitters, support muscle tissue, and are necessary for the structure of the cell’s genetic material, including DNA and RNA. They also play a role in supporting a healthy metabolism, and can be used as fuel for energy.
Who needs supplements? If you are healthy and eat a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, low-fat dairy products…