Tuesday, December 4th * DdHhxDdHh * Female=horizontal axis * Male=vertical axis * Segregation of Dd allele * DdxDd= monohybrid cross 4:8:4=1:2:1 ratio * Same thing happens with Hh * When evaluating both genes together remember the product rule probability * 9/16 have both dominant traits * 3/16 have Dd but little hh * 3/16 have dd but HH * 1/16 have dd and hh * But there are many ways that genes can interact with each other to influence development of a trait * Incomplete dominance * RR= red * Rr= pink * Rr= white * RrxRr= RR (1/2), Rr(2/4), rr (1/4) * Genotype x environment interaction = environmental factors influence gene expression * Fruit fly- wings don’t develop (recessive mutation in which the appearance of the trait is altered by the environment) * If raised at a higher temperature, increase rate of production of enzyme, therefore thing wings will grow * Environment influences phenotype and genotype * Siamese cat/Himalayan rabbits * Pigment enzyme is more active in cooler temperature * When body is warmer, there is less pigment (chest) * Refrigerated cats= all chocolate color * Hairless dogs= another gene interaction * No hair= cant tell what color * Epistasis= one trait standing over (masks) the expression of the second trait * Most simple= Dihybrid * For example: complete baldness (bb) masks the hair color gene expression (C- or cc) since there is no hair there to be colored * Dark hair- 9/16 B-C- * Blonde hair- 3/16 B-cc * Bald- 3/16 bbc- * Bald – 1/16 bbcc * =9:3:4 * Agouti (A) * Yellow (A^y) * Yellowxyellow= 2/3 yellow and 1/3 yellow * This is a 2:1 ration * How can get a ratio like that? * How can you get a trait expressed that was masked in the parents * Two heterozygous mate * When two yellow mice are mated, one genotypic class dies. This is a recessive lethal. (you must be homozygous to die) * THE MOST common kind of mutation * Each of us are probably heterozygous at ½ dozen or more different lethal genes * CANNNOT be homozygous or you will die * Basic questions: * What kind of gametes can the parents produce? * BbxBb * Type and proportion of the genotype * What are their phenotypes * Exception! * Females-XX-2 copies * Males-XY- 1 copy * sex linkage = a gene located on the X chromosome * consider the example of a normal female who marries a man with a the recessive sex linked (= X linked) trait “hemophilia” * X^A X^Z x X^a Y * If sperm carries X chromosome= female * About ½ probability of male or female (slightly more male, because Y chromosome is a little smaller) * Depends on dominance in female * Male gets only X chromosome from his mother * Hemophilia cannot pass from father to son, bc dad gives only x chromosomes to daughters * A gene linkage on the x chromosome can differ in the expression in males and females * Higher frequency in color blindness in sons * Sex- linked= located on the X chromosome * Sex-limited= on any chromosome, but the phenotype is present on only one sex * Sex-influenced gene= the trait is more severe or common in one of the sexes * Stomach has no hole * Found in newborns when they have explosive vomiting * More common in 1st born males…
DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
Genetics is the field of study that is concerned with heredity and the numerous variations in organisms. This includes DNA, genes and chromosomes which are the three main sub-topics within genetics and are related to each other in a unique way.
Deoxyribonucleic acid also known as DNA is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms which contain the biological instructions that make each species unique. DNA is inherited from a person’s mother and father…
DNA AND RNA
Which of these diagrams shows the
structure of a nucleotide?
Name two nucleic acids.
DNA and RNA
Identify the part of the nucleotide labeled A.
Identify the part of the nucleotide labeled B.
Identify the part of the nucleotide labeled C.
deoxyribose or ribose
Name two nitrogenous bases. guanine, cytosine, or
For the following definitions, give the
• segment of DNA that…
Genomic DNA is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Mitochondria contain singlestranded DNA from our mother.
Reagents Used in Lab:
● Lysis Buffer: Disolves the cells’ nuclear membranes and the phospholipid bilayer,
allowing for the DNA to be released
● Protease: Breaks down cellular proteins. We used protease to DESTROY DNAses
and the histones.
● Cold Alcohol: to precipitate the DNA out of the solution. The DNA is less soluble in
alcohol, so it WILL become visible…
The Red Masque Death; Bubonic Plague
The Red Masque Death is a poem based on the original disease called “The Black Plague” or also known as the “Bubonic Plague”, and was written by a poet named Edgar Allen Poe. Edgar Allan Poe was born January 19th, 1809. He was an American writer, poet, editor, literary critic, and considered part of the American Romantic Movement also. Poe is best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Poe has written many poems through anger, depression, and fear…
responsibility for posting refined answers to the guided readings - succinct, relevant, clear, and with pictures or a video to compliment.
When contributing to the reading guide, follow these steps:
1) First complete the reading guide on your own from the DNA unit page.
2) Write your response to a question in word and then copy it. Be sure to upload pictures and/or video for each question.
3) Click on the edit button and then go to the appropriate question and paste your answer below it. Sign your contribution…
instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to rest of the cell
3. Ribosomal RNA-type of RNA that combines with proteins to form Ribosomes
4. Transfer RNA-type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
5. Transcription-synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
6. RNA Polymerase_ enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template
7. Promoters- specific region…
sugar that is a component of DNA nucleotides
Nitrogenous base- an organic base that contains nitrogen, such as a purine or pyrimidine; a subunit of a nucleotide in DNA and RNA
Purine- a nitrogenous base that has a dou- ble-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
Pyrimidine- a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; one of the two gen- eral categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; thymine, cyto- sine…
05 November 2014
The Bluest Eye
Have you ever been discriminated against because of the color of your skin? In Toni
Morrison's “The Bluest Eye” the author focuses on racism. The book follows Pecola, a young
black girl living in Lorain Ohio in the mid 20th century. Pecola is severely abused by others for
her lack of physical beauty and thusly leads to her having no self esteem or confidence. The
book takes us with her as she tries to reach her ultimate dream of having blue eyes so she
can be beautiful…
Stephen Mendoza, HIST 2312
Wong, Jan. Red China Blues. Toronto: Doubleday/ Anchor Books, 1996. 395 pages. $11.95
In Jan Wong’s entrancing expose Red China Blues, she details her plight to take part in a system of “harmony and perfection” (12) that was Maoist China. Wong discloses her trials and tribulations over a course of three decades that sees her searching for her roots and her transformation of ideologies that span over two distinctive forms of Communist governments. This tale is so enticing…