sociology Chapter 4 Essay

Submitted By vaidehi1996
Words: 565
Pages: 3

Chapter 4: Socialization
Socialization (non-uniform): acquisition of knowledge, skills, and motivation to participate in social life. process individuals learn through interaction with others, which they must know in order to survive, function and become members of society life learning process allowing us to develop ourselves, roles and identities share many values and norms but differences are found by geographic region, ethnic background, gender, religion and social class
Great Depression growing up vs. modern society is different
Criminologists: what is learned is not necessarily RIGHT. Example. Gang behaviour pertaining to violence, drug trafficking
Human Behaviour musical instrument--> learned because social forces (parents ready to pay) or due to genes? biology + environment interact; environment determines the extent to which these abilities can be realized socialization provides link between biology + culture epigenetic--> PowerPoint environment can limit the extent to which genes/gifts are realized or used.
The Case of Genie
Genie was tied in her room for 10 years. nurturing, enriched environment did not make up completely for her horrifying past. minor forms of social isolation can have great impacts lack of social support and other controlled factors can have a poor psychological/physical health impact socialization is the bridge between individual and society social isolation, abuse, neglect leads to irreparable development damage.
Theoretical Approaches To Socialization
1) Learning/Behaviourist Frame Of Reference (Skinner And Watson) changes result from maturations which include instrumental and classical conditionings
Classical: links a response to a known stimulus ex. infant hearing mother's footsteps
Instrumental: focuses attention on response not related to any known stimulus. Response correlates with positive reinforcement or reward animal like behaviour applied to humans

2) Psychoanalytic Frame of Reference (Sigmund Freud) importance of childhood experiences, biological drives, unconscious behaviour and cultural influences selfish energies beneath individuals consciousness
Id--> impulsive, unconscious (repressed)
Egos--> cognitive, conscious (guide)
Superegos--> controls Id and Egos
Stages of development 1) Oral 2) Anal 3) Phallic Stages 4) Period of latency 5) Genital Phase

once individuals pass through these stages, results in a healthy, mature personality with a well-developed superego fixation: individual remains in one stage for long time regression: returns to previous stage breastfeeding & bladder training are negligible in how they affect personality development
Freud focused on sexuality being a motivating force
3) Child Development Frame Of Reference (Erikson and