This final part of the tutorial consists of 4 parts: • Part 5a. How to paraphrase: A method. (A tutorial that helps you to develop the skills necessary to paraphrase successfully.) • Part 5b. How to paraphrase: Using the method. (An interactive tutorial that allows you to practice and develop your paraphrasing skills.) • Part 5c. How to use paraphrase in your assignments: A method. (A tutorial that shows you how to integrate paraphrase into your essays and reports.) • Part 5d. How to Use paraphrase in your assignments: Using the method. (An interactive tutorial that allows you to practice and develop your skills in integrating paraphrase into your assignments.)
PART 5a. How to paraphrase: A method
How do you write effective paraphrases that avoid plagiarism? This section of the tutorial will provide you with a method of paraphrasing that will help you to avoid the kinds of writing practices that can lead to unintentional (or accidental) plagiarism.
[pic] Take note! You will not be able to write successful paraphrases if you are too dependent on the original source, or if you try to paraphrase “word by word” from the source.
There are 4 important steps or stages that can help you to produce a successful and appropriate paraphrase which avoids plagiarism:
The section below will take you through these steps by providing an example source which talks about the causes of stress (stressors) in the workplace.
Step 1. Read the original text carefully
1. Carefully read the original passage for understanding before you start to paraphrase the ideas in it. A very clear understanding of the original is essential.
As you are about to paraphrase this passage you will need to read it several times to properly understand the ideas before trying to rewrite them in your own words.
[pic] Take note! It is very important for successful paraphrasing that you think and read critically. Real mental engagement with any source under review involves a willingness to question and compare ideas in order to form a strong understanding and informed opinion. This kind of thoughtful interrogation of sources protects you from the simple repetition of ideas which not only leads to plagiarism but to poor paraphrases.
Step 2: Explain it to yourself
2. Cover the passage or close the book (that contains the original passage) and explain to yourself what it is about.
After reading the text you want to paraphrase, you should be able to explain to yourself the ideas or arguments in the text without referring back to it. If you cannot explain the ideas in the passage without constantly consulting the original passage then you are not ready to paraphrase it.
Read the following explanation of the passage which shows the student’s understanding of the source and her capacity to explain it without continually referring back to the original text.
[pic] Take note! Any attempt to paraphrase after only a quick reading of the text will lead to a dependence on the original source, which will result in a word by word and phrase by phrase paraphrase (usually by repeatedly moving back and forward between the original passage and the paraphrase). This practice leads to poorly constructed paraphrases and accidental plagiarism.
Once you can clearly explain the passage to yourself in your own words, then you can begin the process of paraphrasing.
Step 3: Paraphrase it
3. Write a paraphrase of the ideas, as you have understood them (without constantly referring back to the original passage).
[pic] Take note! Use your explanation to write the paraphrase. Only refer back to the original text to check what you have written. If your paraphrase changes the meaning of the original text then adjust your paraphrase so that it reflects the meaning (not the wording) of the original source more accurately.
The following paragraph is the