Study Guide on Anxiety Essay

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Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety vs. Fear vs. Panic
Anxiety- sustained movement or affects
Fear- immediate alarm
Panic- abrupt and intense experience of fear; accompanied by acute physiological discomfort; basically a false alarm; body has intense response that usually occurs in minutes
Adaptive anxiety: planning, thinking about future; can help us prepare for situations such as studying for a test Adaptive vs. maladaptive anxiety
Anxiety often occurs in situations that are not threating
When we fear stuff we ensure our safety
Maladaptive anxiety: when anxiety is so high its interfering with daily functioning; also when you fear something that is not actually dangerous
Fight or flight response: immediate alarm and escape response 3 response systems in anxiety
Physiological: includes fight or flight response; sympathetic nervous system is producing stress hormones that will enable you to react. All natural biological responses that will increase your likelihood of survival
Cognitive/attention: searching for potential sources of threat; want to anticipate threat so you can anticipate it
Behavioral: can include fidgeting, looking worried/preoccupied; avoidance and attempts to escape situation Features of Panic Attack
Biological: genetics: collections of different genes; stress; specific brain circuits/neurotransmitter systems; depleted GABA Psychological: classical conditioning, modeling, learning 4 common psychological processes in anxiety disorders fear-evoking stimuli: can basically include anything maladaptive beliefs: negative thoughts about what is feared selective attention: attention is heightened to that fear evoking stimuli safety behaviors: intentional efforts to prevent dangerous outcomes; ex. Scanning for threat/trying to escape/use of safety aids or strategies
Etiological explanations – biological, social, and psychological influences
Biological: genes, polygenetic causes: multiple types of genes; depleted levels of GABA; learning and memory; prepared learning
Social: modeling; stressful life experiences
Psychological: cognitions- what you think; high self-esteem; control Comorbid disorders: co-occur with other anxiety disorders; mood disorders, depression, medical conditions
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
Symptoms: excessive anxiety/worry to numerous events; difficult to control
Gender- Female
Causes- genetics, stress, anxious apprehension, worry
Treatment- medication: benzodiazepines, antidepressants, cognitive behavioral therapy
Panic Disorder:
Symptoms-severe, unexpected panic attacks; they might think that they’re dying or losing control
Gender- Female
Biological: genes
Psychological: stress
Treatment- medication: benzodiapines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; gradual exposure
Symptoms- fear and avoidance of situations in which they would feel unsafe in event of a panic attack or symptoms
Gender- Female
Causes- socially/culturally developed
Treatment- medication; CBT
Specific Phobia:
Symptoms- extreme or irrational fear with certain stimuli
Gender: Girls
Causes: Can happen through observation; typically some kind of learning
Social Phobia:
Symptoms: extreme or irrational fear; any situation where your being evaluated or person perceives that they’re being evaluated
Gender: Girls
Treatment: medication- antidepressants OR psychotherapy- cognitive behavioral therapy; social skills training
Symptoms: post traumatic episode; re-experiencing symptoms; avoidance; hyper arousal
Gender: Women
Causes: learning- classical conditioning and reinforcement OR Cognitive appraisals- person’s beliefs
Debriefing- trying to get people immediately following event to talk about it
Medication- antidepressants
Psychotherapy- in vivo: real life; imagine exposure: retelling of trauma; cognitive processing therapy: modifying negative thoughts
Symptoms: obsessions: recurrent persistent thoughts; greater than excessive