Chapter 1 Essay

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Pages: 2

Chapter 1. Discovering Psychology. Study Guide.

Sergio Martin
 Explain AUTISM and discuss SAVANT characteristics.
Autism: Autism is an abnormal or impaired development in social interactions. They usually avoid eye contact, they don’t like to be touched and or try to avoid people. Is marked by difficulties in communicating, such as grave problems in developing spoken language or in initiating conversations.
Savant: Savant syndrome is a condition in which a person demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal. Notably autism spectrum disorders, or brain injuries.
 Describe TEST ANXIETY.
Test Anxiety: a combination of physiological, emotional, and components that are caused by stress of taking exams.
A. Define PSYCHOLOGY and explain the 4 GOALS of PSYCHOLOGY.
Psychology: Systematic, scientific study of behavioral and mental process. Goals: Describe, Explain, Predict, Control.
B. Discuss the 8 modern approaches to psychology
1. BIOLOGICAL approach: Focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interacts with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping techniques.
2. COGNITIVE approach: Exam-lines how we process, store, and use information.
3. BEHAVIORAL approach: Studies how organisms learn new behaviors of modify existing ones, depending on whether events in their environments reward or punish these behaviors.
4. PSYCHOANALYTIC approach: Stresses the influence of unconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thought, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life.
5. HUMANISTIC approach: Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future.
6. SOCIOCULTURAL approach: studies the influence of social and cultural factors on psychology.
7. EVOLUTIONARY approach: Studies how evolutionary ideas, such as adaptation and natural selection
8. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL approach: Studies how biological, psychological, and social influences explain human health