Table of Contents
Cover Page 1
Table of Contents 2
Part A 3
Part B 13
Transactional Leadership 14
Application and Effect 15
Transformational Leadership 17
Application and Effect 18
Synthesis of two Leadership Styles 20
Part A 22
Part B 23
Motivation is a linchpin in performance towards objective achievement for most individuals and teams. Focusing on an individual’s role within a developing department, this essay will speak to Tuckman’s Team Development Model of; Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing. Firstly, identifying the department and how and why it was formed and defining motivation will occur. Succeeding this, it will be argued that Motivation must be evident within individuals and team in order to progress. Other tasks and behaviours within stages of Tuckman’s Model, are considered inferior to stage progression.
Initiated by executive management, due to an increase in yearly cliental and market trend prediction in 2013, the concept of a program department was created for the facility. The role of a single person became the joint responsibilities of a team. The team consisted of a; Coordinator, Administrator (my role) and an additional member. The department’s operational objective is described as the smooth planning, coordination and facilitation of; safe, enjoyable and educational programs for school based camp groups. (CYC Limited, 2013)
Ryan and Deci (2000, p. 54) state “To be motivated means to be moved to do something.” (Ryan and Deci, 2000, p. 54) More so, the distinction between Intrinsic, (for challenge or fun) and extrinsic (pressures or reward (e.g. money)) motivation as described by Ryan and Deci (2000) has placed valuable light on development practises, such as Tuckman’s Model.
It has been understood that Bruce Tuckman hypothesized his forming, storming, norming and performing Team Development Model in 1965. Later empirical studies suggested a fifth stage, and Tuckman and Jensen, in 1977, integrated adjourning into the stage model as the fifth stage. Each stage consists of group behaviour and task activities, but without the essential ingredient of motivation a team and its members remain stagnate and no stage progression occurs. (Tuckman and Jensen, 2010, p. 43-48) Forming
Forming, the bringing together of parts to create a combined item, is the initial stage in this sequence. For example, an employer will hire employees to form a team needed to achieve operations objectives. The employer whilst recruiting these people is motivated by job pressures and needs, thus motivated extrinsically in accordance to Ryan and Deci (2009, p.54) findings.
Tuckman (1965), Alleman (2004), Nazzaro and Strazzabosco (2004) all characterise this stage as being ‘polite’ in member nature. Members are on their ‘best behaviour’ as they develop trust, identify similarities and establish base levels of expectations.
For instance, the administrator was hired and placed within an already two person team, thus starting the forming stage for the team.
Average, best describes the way in which the team was initially managed. Although polite and having base level expectations and agreement of common goals set; role and task establishment was unclear and ill-defined.
Working between two desk locations and answerable to split job roles and the administrator role initially was ill-functional and ineffective. Furthermore, coming into the position with years of experience and training, the administrator felt untrusted with the role. Correspondence with cliental and task performed where overseen by two supervisors for three months.
Thus having two distinctive effects. Firstly, trust not established between administrator and