Essay about The History of U.S. during the Nineteenth Century

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Chapter 11 Vocabulary
Revolution of 1800: electoral victory of Democratic republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency. The peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America’s political system patronage: practice of rewarding political support with special favors, often in the form of public office. Upon assuming office, Thomas Jefferson dismissed few Federalist employees, leaving scant opening to fill with political appointees
Judiciary Act of 1801: organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general midnight judges: federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency. Their positions were revoked when the newly elected Republican congress repealed the Judiciary act
Marbury vs. Madison:
1803; Supreme court case that established the principle of “judicial review” - the idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionality
Tripolitan war:
1801-1805; four year conflict between the American Navy and the
North-African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean. Jefferson, a staunch noninterventionist, reluctantly deployed American forces, eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli
LouIsiana Purchase:
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for
15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.

Corps of Discovery: a specially-established unit of the United States Army which

formed the nucleus of the Lewis and Clark expedition that took place between May
1804 and September 1806.
Orders in Council: a series of decrees made by the United Kingdom in the course of the wars with Napoleonic France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare
impressment: act of forcibly drafting an individual into military service, employed by the
British Navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815.
Impressment was a continual source of conflict between Britain and the United States in the early national period

Chesapeake affair:
107. conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the
1807 embargo. The conflict developed when a British ship, in search of deserters, fired on the
American Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia
Embargo Act:
1807, enacted in response to British and French mistreatment of American merchants, the Act banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port.
The embargo places great restrains on the American economy while only marginally affecting its European targets, and was therefore repealed in 1809
Non-Intercourse Act:
1809, passed alongside the repealment of the Embargo Act, it reopened trade with all but two belligerent nations, Britain and France. The act continued
Jefferson’s policy of economic coercion, still with little effect.
Macon’s Bill No. 2: aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, the act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restriction, the United States would reinstate the embargo against the nonrepealing nation. war hawks:
1811-1812, democratic-republican congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain
Battle of Tippecanoe:
1811, resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, “the
Prophet” at the hands of William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness.
Thomas Jefferson:

Sally Hemings: slave mistress of Jefferson who had his baby
Albert Gallatin:
Jefferson's Secretary of Treasury and a financial genius. He helped to cut the national debt nearly in half
John Marshall: cousin to Thomas Jefferson, who was appointed to the Supreme Court during Adams’ presidency
Samuel Chase:
‘tart-tongued’ court justice who was very