Feminism sees society as male dominated and it seeks to describe, explain and change the position of women in society. It is therefore both a theory of women’s subordination and a political movement. There 3 main types of feminism: liberal, Radical and Marxist. The roots of feminism can be related back to the late 18th century Enlightenment. Feminists argued that since both sexes had the same power of reason, these principles should apply to women as much as to men and that women’s emancipation must be included as part of the Enlightenment project. However poststructuralist feminists argue that the enlightenment project is simply a form of power/knowledge. Butler argues it legitimated the domination of western, white, middle-class males over other groups and oppressed other groups such as black people. A first wave of feminism appeared in the late 19th century, with the suffragettes’ campaign for the right to vote. The 1960s saw a second wave emerge on a global scale. Since then feminism has had a major influence on sociology as well contemporary society. Liberal feminists believe women can achieve gender equality by reformism. This is the idea that progress towards equal rights can be achieved by gradual reforms or piecemeal changes in society, without the need of revolution. For example they argue that laws and policies against sex discrimination in employment and education can secure equal opportunities for women, without them having to start a revolution about this. As well as campaigning for the changes in the law, liberal feminists call for cultural change. In their view, traditional prejudices and stereotypes about gender differences are a barrier to equality. For example beliefs that women are less rational and more dominated by emotion and instinct are used to legitimate their exclusion from decision-making role and their confinement to childbearing and housework. This is still true for contemporary society, as in some cultures particularly Pakistani women play their traditional role of housewife, but culture may not be a major factor as Naomi Wolf author of ‘The Beauty Myth’ states that “a Pakistani woman spends sixty-three hours per week on domestic work alone, while a Western housewife, despite her modern appliances, works just 6 hours less”. This shows how even in a contemporary society the traditional housewife still exists even if the ‘cereal packet’ family has been eliminated to some extent. There is contemporary scientific evidence today that tells us, testosterone in men can have a significant impact to their personality, such as men being ‘macho’ but a liberal feminist would reject this view as they argue biological differences do not make women less competent or rational that men or that men are biologically less emotional and nurturing than women. Liberal feminists have produced evidence documenting the extent of gender inequality and discrimination, and legitimising the demand for reform in areas such as equal pay and employment practices that were created by a contemporary society, showing that there was an inequality in the work place, and there was a need for change. Their work has also helped to demonstrate that gender differences are not inborn but the result of different treatment and socialisation patterns. Like Oakley liberal feminists distinguish between sex and gender. They believe that sex refers to biological differences between males and females and gender refers to culturally constructed differences between the ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ roles and identities assigned to males and females. While sex differences are seen as fixed, gender differences vary between cultures over time. An example would be the ‘roaring 60s’ women started becoming more independent, however countries like Saudi Arabia even over time would forbid there women to wear revealing clothes thus, what is considered a proper role for women in one society or at one time may be disapproved of or forbidden in another. Therefore…
The novel, Sword of Truth by Mervyn Hiskett depicts what only can be described as a revolutionary movement against the Hausa Kings from the 18th to the 19th century. The Islamic movement was centered on the leadership of Shehu Usuman dan Fodio and his commanders. Unlike Shehu, the Hausa Kings lacked leadership and able commanders; and thus, Shehu Dan Fodio’s forces were…
The Curse of the Industrial Revolution
Would you like working 18 hours a day, 7 days a week? How about in 80 degree weather doing dangerous hand-on work? Would you like your own kids working next to you in these conditions? You would probably be tired and hungry and still get paid 1 cent per day. This was how the working class in the 18th century lived, in horrible conditions, starving, exhausted from work, and even their own children had to live though these…
March 22, 2012
The Egyptian Revolution
The 2011–2012 Egyptian revolution took place following an uprising that began on Tuesday, 25 January 2011 and is still continuing as today of 2012. The uprising took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt. It was mainly a campaign of non-violent civil resistance, which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety…
Honors English II
4 April 2013
The Industrial Revolution began in 1760 in England. The first type of industry to industrialize was the textile industry. During this revolution machines came into play which came to be called the factory system. Before this system there was the domestic system. This system relied on merchants being able to go to other people that had different skills to get there final product which they would sell. The Factory…
Causes of the French Revolution
Written by: Michelle Yang
Edited by: Emily Day
While Louis XVI held power before the French Revolution, his grasp on the French people rapidly weakened with news of the American Revolution. Although France had been known as the country of “absolute monarchy,” when the Americans succeeded in breaking away from the British crown, the French society brought up their own revolution.
France’s luxurious spending on top of its war debt enraged the overtaxed citizens…
Between the years 1789 and 1799, it was a period of change and revolt for the French people. A lot of changes occurred during these years because people showed their disagreement with the way the power was divided in France. Therefore, those ten years were a time of change for this people. This essay will discuss the causes and the stages of the French revolution.
In the first place, there are three main causes for the French revolution. The first one is the social inequality…
The Underdogs a Novel of the Mexican Revolution Objects/Places
Zacatecas is the last stronghold of the Federals (the Government army), led by Huerta. Demetrio, through brave recklessness, rallies his troops and takes the town when it appears a defeat is imminent. For his heroics, Demetrio is promoted to General after the siege of Zacatecas.
Cuquio is the region in the sierra where Demetrio is instructed to stop the Carranza army. In cyclical fashion, it is very near the spot…
Economics and Revolution
Revolutions across the world have numerous causes and effects. These causes and effects can be short-lived and closely contained or lasting and global. The economic causes and effects of a revolution can be some of the most important. No revolution no matter how small or large will be conducted without some sort of economic factors. These factors are also numerous and all-encompassing and include wealth inequality…
was the American Revolution?
One of the most important American leaders of the American Revolution, George Washington states that the enemy (The British) leaves them no choice but to bravely resist. They either win, or they die… but if they die, they are not dying for no reason but for their country’s honor. A revolution is a sudden or complete marked change in something. Some revolutions may cause little change while others can cause dramatic changes. Lets talk about revolution, in specific, the…
Thematic Essay - The French Revolution
There are a numerous causes for a collapse in government. The end of Louis XVI’s government in France was brought by a political revolution. The French Revolution was the basis of significant change in France.
Many historical circumstances led up to the French Revolution. Enlightenment Era philosophers such as Locke and Baron De Montesquieu helped facilitate the spread of ideas that people have natural rights and that traditional authority can be challenged…