In 711 Muslim forces invaded the southern shores of Iberia and by 720 most of the peninsula was completely conquered. There are disagreements about whether the infiltration of Islam in Spain was completed by force or justice. Prior to the introduction of Islam into Spain, Christianity within the country was divided into two groups the Trinitarians and the Unitarians. The Trinitarians believed Jesus was the Son of God while the Unitarians believed he was a prophet. After Constantine converted to Christianity he supported the Trinitarian view and eventually the Unitarians were banished from the Christian church. It is believe that this divide in the Christian religion helped Islam conquer Spain. (Lost Islamic History, 2013)
After the penetration of the Muslims in Spain Christians and Jews still existed. People who followed the other religions were not forced to convert to Islam and were able to maintain some freedom under Muslim power. The non-Muslims were not forced to live in poverty, they were not enslaved, they were not limited in their professions and they were able to contribute to society and culture. Although the non-Muslims were granted these freedoms, they did not have the same rights as the Muslims in the country and they were only endured if they followed specific rules. They had to acknowledge Islamic superiority and they had to accept Islamic power. They were imposed a tax called Jizya which was paid to the Muslim rulers, were not allowed to try an convert Muslims, and they were not allowed to carry weapons. (Muslim Spain, 2009)
In Africa the effect of Islam differed greatly. Like other Islam conquests, Africa was taken over by military invasion however; securing trade routes in gold producing areas was how they were able to gain power. (The Story of Africa, n.d.) The political influences in African society are hard to determine, as the spread of Islam into the continent was sporadic and inconsistent. Yet, Islam impacted Africa by increasing trade and blending its culture with African culture.
Trade routes were expanded areas such as the Middle East and Asia, and Timbuktu became a major trade location. (The Cultural Economic and Political Impact of Islam on West Africa, 2012) Aesthetically, Islam preferences superseded traditional African