Navigation Laws laws that regulated trade to benefit England's Mercantilist system- only allowed them to trade with Britain
Enumerated Products products tat had to be sent to Britain, even though there might be better prices
Monetary Deflation there wasn't enough money in the colonies- had to print their own
British right to nullify any legislation passed by the colonial system if it went against Mercantalism
Salutary Neglect time from after King William's War to the French and Indian war where Britain let the colonies run themselves
John Hancock rich colonist who made money by smuggling around the Navigation Laws
Rights of Englishmen colonists had protection of British army and navy
George Grenville the Prime Minister of Britain- ordered the navy to enforce the Navigation Acts- created the Sugar Act
1st law 1765- passed by Parliament that raised taxes of colonists- on imported sugar
1765- required colonists to provide food and shelter to British troops
1765- mandated use of stamps that taxed most paper products
Admiralty Courts trial where there is no jury- defendant was assumed to be guilty
Chapter 1 New World Beginnings
The Shaping of North America
The discovery of nearly identical species of fish in various bodies of water has proven that 225 million years ago, a single supercontinent of dryland began to drift apart, creating the different oceans and landmasses.
2 million years ago the Great Ice-Age, a two-mile thick ice sheet, crept from the polar regions into North America and the other continents.
10,000 years ago the glaciers retreated the North American landscape, leaving behind the lakes and river systems we know today.
Peopling the Americas
35,000 years ago, the Ice-Age lowered the sea level by concealing the oceans’ waters in massive ice chunks, thus revealing a land bridge in which animals and people migrated connecting present-day Siberia and Alaska.
Once the Ice-Age ended and the glaciers melted, the land bridge was covered with water and impassable, therefore preventing further immigration.
Being stranded, they migrated south to the tip of South America, forming tribes and populating the two continents.
The Earliest Americans
Corn cultivation spread from the Mexican heartland, transforming nomadic hunting bands into settled agricultural villages.
Depending on when the corn cultivation and irrigation systems reached a tribe, the tribes varied in societal development.
Native Americans had neither the desire nor the means to manipulate nature, thus being why they were devoted to the spiritual properties of nature, unfortunately being a reason to their overtaking by the European settlers.
Indirect Discoverers of the New World
Norse seafarers from Scandinavia landed in present-day Newfoundland in about A.D. 1000 without knowledge of the existence of the Americans.
Several centuries afterwards, other Europeans sought contact with the wider world, thus setting in motion the chain of events that led to the drive toward Asia, the penetration of Africa, and the accidental discovery of the New World.
The luxuries of the East were becoming too expensive as the demand for them rose, leading the European consumers to find a less expensive route to Asia or to develop alternate sources of supply.
Europeans Enter Africa
Marco Polo’s findings and stories of his twenty-year journey to “China” provided the needed kick to Portuguese explorers in order to overcome their fears of sailing the south of Africa.
Slave trade had begun with Arab flesh merchants and Africans, but the Portuguese’ trading posts along the African shore highly increased slave trade and gold purchasing.
Spain was united through the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella and in order to proclaim their sudden strength to the world, they set out