Conquistadors: Spanish explorers who looked for gold and silver
Joint stock companies
People who opposed independence and remained loyal to the British king
Including judges, governors, and people of more modest means
The supporters of independence
Drew their numbers from people who saw political and economic opportunity in an independent America.
Many Americans remained neutral.
Congress ran out of silver and gold, therefore, it printed paper money called Continentals.
However, as Congress printed more and more money, its value plunged, causing rising prices, or inflation.
A belief in the equality of all people: the idea that ability, effort, and virtue, not wealth or family background, defined one’s worth.
A government in which citizens rule through their elected representatives.
The new government could not become a reality until at least nine states ratified, or approved, the Constitution.
Supporters of the Constitution
Favored the new Constitution’s balance of power between the states and the national government. Antifederalists:
Opponents of the federalists
Opposed having a strong central government and thus were against the Constitution.
President’s chief advisers or the department heads
For example, Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state; Alexander Hamilton as secretary of treasury, and Henry Knox as secretary of war.
An import tax on goods produced abroad meant to encourage American production.
The states had the right to nullify, or consider void, any act of Congress that they deemed unconstitutional violations of the First Amendment that deprived citizens of their rights.
-the practice of seizing Americans at sea and impressing or drafting them into the British navy
-the movement to abolish slavery
-the most important of a series of reform movements in America
Secession : the formal withdrawal of a state from the union
Conscription : a draft that forced men to serve in the army
Scalawag : white Southerners who joined the Republican Party. Many were small farmers who wanted to improve their economic position and sis not want the former wealthy planters to regain power.
Carpetbagger : Northerners who moved to the South after the war. This name came from the misconception that they arrived with so few belongings that they carried everything in small travelling bags made of carpeting.
Sharecropping : landowners divided their land and assigned each head of household a few acres, along with seed and tools. Sharecroppers kept a small share of their crops and gave the rest to the landowners. Croppers who saved a little might even rent land for cash and keep all their harvest in a system known as tenant farming.
1. A soldier, a sea captain, and a poet
2. He offered his services as a colonist to the Virginia Company
3. He held the colony together by forcing colonists to farm and by securing food and support from the natives.
1. A true student of enlightenment
2. Demonstrated that the lightning is a form of electrical power by flying a kite in a thunderstorm
3. Electricity become an important power source now
1. Massachusetts Congregationalist minister
2. Delivered a famous sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
3. Restore the intensity and dedication of the colonists to their religious faith.
King George III
1. King of Great Britain during the American Revolution
2. He wanted to lower the debt of Britain, therefore, he chose George Grenville to serve as prime minister.
3. George Grenville’s