Research process involves several steps and each step depends on the preceding steps. If step is missing or inaccurate, then the succeeding steps will fail. When developing research plan, always be aware that this principles critically affects the progress. One of critical aspects of evaluation and appraisal of reported research is to consider the quality of the research instrument. According to Parahoo (2006), in quantitative studies reliability and validity are two of the most important concept used by researcher to evaluate the quality of the study that is carried out. Reliability and validity in research refer specifically to the measurement of data as they will be used to answer the research question. In most …show more content…
2.1.2 Alternate forms reliability
Wood & Rose-Kerr (2006), stated test of equivalence attempt to determine if similar test given at the same time yield the same result, or if the same results can be obtained using different observers at the same time. A test of equivalence using alternate form is consisting of two sets of similar questions. The two sets of test based on the same content but different question. When these two tests are administered to subjects at the same time, the result can be compared just as with the test-retest method, only this time it is the equivalence of the two measures that is tested rather than stability of one instrument. Obtaining similar results on the two alternate forms of the instrument gives support for reliability of both form of the instrument. The idea of alternate test is that the test will be equivalent; the result obtained from both alternate forms should reflect the same level of knowledge if the tests are reliable.
2.1 Internal consistency or homogeneity
It is the most widely used reliability approach among nurse researcher. A method used to determine the extent to which or the items on a given test are measuring the same skill characteristic and quality. It is a measure of the precision between the observers or of the measuring instruments used in a study. There