Vietnam and Vietnamese Formal Education Essay

Submitted By royals0987
Words: 1335
Pages: 6

Phan Boi Cham
Phan Cu Trinh

Imperialism: systems policies and or practices of one nation to establish economic and political hegemony over

Colonization: process by which a nation occupies and settles in the territory belonging to another people (or occupied territory). Also using force to enforce the belief that “my way is better than your way”

Colonialism: system in which one nation exercises military economic and political power to control another country’s

Mandarin Education: 1070-1883
First institution of higher learning was established in Hanoi in 1076-preceeded by the institution of formal system of education in 1070
Temple of literature- Vietnamese and chinese style
Chinese language held sway in Vietnamese
Chinese political domination lasted until 939 ad, but the mandarin education system prevailed under vietnmese independence until 1883 when French colonial rule was instituted
Although chinese fulfilled high education statis functions in society, never used by Vietnamese
Formal education was conducted in chinese by using chinese textbooks. Very few were written by Vietnamese educators
During the 13th century the vietnames devised wrtieen from for the language based on chinese characters- Nom
Script used single chinese ideograms, or combination of up to three ideograms, so chinese cannot read it
Nom was formed for the composition of vietnmese literature while the

French colonial Education: 1861-1945
Current system of writing is a romanied script with diacritic markers-used to tones and for other reason such as pronunciation guides
Present writing system was creted by a group of Portugese missionaries in the 17th century. It was further modified by a French priest by the name of Alexander de Rhodes who is believed to devise the system

Vietnamese taught as second language
Anti colonial movements
Resistance from the French 1862-1888
These movements failed because of localization efforts:
The French was able to separate from them
Monarchy without monarch

State monopolies on production and sale of alcohol, salt raising prices of both beyond what Vietnamese could afford
State monopoly on opium also established

Top rice export
Mines and rubber plantation workers would be fined and jailed for trying to leave jobs

Opportunities for population declined during period of French rule

First resistance from French 1862-1888.peacked in 1885 with broader resistance movement under leadership of Phan Dinh Phung

Inspired by victory of japan over Russia in 1905, many Vietnamese went to japan for higher studies.
Phan boi chau-“go east”
Tonkin free school-1907. School didn’t last very long
Phan boi chau-scholar trained in Confucian tradition

Ho Chi Minh 1890- Nguyen sinh cung
1925- founded revolutionary youth league of Vietnam
1930, started first Vietnamese

Second wave
Second exodus 1978 lasted into mid 80s.
2 million people (3 million including Cambodia and laos fled re-education camps and 1979 chinese invasion of Vietnam

refugees swamped neighboring SE Asian countries
2,000-5,000 people a month

45% died at sea, mostly women captured by pirates and molested escape Communists

US tried to spread them throughout the US, then just brought them to the west coast

Second wave:
Ethnic chinese due to internal conflict and renewed pressure by the Vietnamese govt to expel ethnic chinese
Many left by boat
Not familiar with western culture and value

After 1975
Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia
1979: border war between Vietnam and china; Vietnam expels chinese “petit bourgeoisie”

Khmer rouge-genocide killed millions of people in his country

Collapse of resistance to pathet lao in laos

Collective Cambodia labor camp survivors enter Thailand

Approx. 250,000 ethnic chinese move from Vietnam to china
By 1979, 60,000 boat people monthly

Resettlement crisis
1979 “first asylum”