Safety of goods is equally important. Any loss or damage—because of theft, mishandling, poor quality packaging, or physical damage caused by accident—will result in goods not being available at the expected time and place, or in the expected condition. The financial consequences of such non-availability, in addition to the cost of loss or damage, are similar to the time reliability consequences mentioned above.
Uncertainties related to issues such as schedules, breakages, loss, and rules and regulations are faced by traders and may disadvantage exporters and importers.
Security measures are necessary to guarantee the protection of global supply chains against acts of terrorism or other unexpected threats. Beyond the loss of human life and material destruction, a terrorist attack will disrupt the flow of goods within a global supply chain.
The above-mentioned considerations indicate that trading opportunities can benefit from better-organized supply chain services. To increase the competitiveness of existing supply chains, sellers and buyers must adapt their commercial practices to meet customers’ supply chain requirements, and governments must provide logistics service providers with institutional, regulatory, and