1. Explain one of the following ethical debates:
(a) Different strategies for poverty alleviation in the developing world
(b) development versus sustainable development
(c) development being more than simply economic growth
Development is usually measured in terms of changes in Gross National Product (GNP) per capita and GNPs between states. A state is considered ‘developing’ when its GNP is increasing. However, the term ‘development’ is highly contentious as it appears to emphasise the attainment of wealth over other social and non-economic factors, which include political liberties, basic human rights, freedom of speech, democracy (the right to vote in free and fair elections) and taking care of the environment.
2. (a) From Goal 1 - Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger –choose a specific target (see p.4.6).
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
(b) Provide 2 examples of UN work in seeking to achieve this goal/target.
The World Food Programme (WFP) has fulfilled its goal/target by providing food assistance which includes cash and voucher transfers to the famished in Bangladesh, the Gaza Strip, Columbia, Malawi, etc.
It has also established a global forum called The Centre of Excellence against Hunger for South-South policy dialogue and learning on school feeding and food and nutritional security programmes. The Centre of Excellence was created in 2011 to support Governments in Africa, Asia and Latin America in the development of sustainable solutions against hunger, by means of a Programme for Capacity Development.
(c) To what extent has the UN fulfilled its aims in regard to this goal and this target?
Food assistance: Cash and voucher transfers are used to tackle hunger in places where there is plenty of food in the marketplace but where deprived people cannot afford to buy it. Cash and vouchers can sometimes cut down the costs of transporting and storing food. They benefit the local economy, because beneficiaries spend the money in local markets.
The Centre of Excellence against Hunger:
64 countries engaged
29 countries participated in study visits