FINAL: THURSDAY JUNE 27TH
A. Spanish Exploration of America: Model of colonization: 3G’s GOD, GOLD, GLORY 1. Developed model of colonization in America based on 3 key concepts a. Spain’s monarchy maintained firm control over its colonies with virtually no autonomy granted to American colonies. b. Men made up the majority of early colonists, taking the Indians first and later African women as wives or concubines. c. Development of the colonies and exploitation of their resources was based on exploiting native people and African slaves as labor.
COLUMBUS = BAD; BRUTAL INVASION FOR NEW WORLD
Born in Italy to a Wool Weaver; wanted to be a sailor. Went to Portugal and learned navigation. Determined the world was round—by traveling west he could reach the wealth of Asia, Japan, Great Cities, Etc. Begged monarchs to finance his trip.
6th visit to Queen Isabella granted him voyage/sponsorship. Left August 3rd; 3 ships (Santa Maria, ____, ____).
Thought Cuba was Japan. Santa Maria was wrecked in Haiti Took Indians to bring back to Spain as proof for Isabella that they visited the new world. Locked Indians under the ship/tortured them; exploited Indians. Used mutilation as a threat not to steal.
If you honor Columbus you honor racism and degeneration. 1st American to discover America however ended up in chains and charged with brutality and incompetence.
Columbus log notes: 1. Quest for gold, other riches / mixed attitude towards native people
2. Regions resources (plants, animals, people) could be exploited to generate profits for Spain; dyes, spices, medicines made from plants. 3. Easily converted to Catholic and made servants.
*His discoveries sparked interest for other European nations however no colonization for generations.
*England, Portugal and France initial attempts to colonize failed because they were unable to be self-sustaining and did little to diminish hostilities between them and native people. Wanted their food yet antagonized and killed them.
B. British Colonies: Came 100 years after Spain/Portugal yet took advantage of experience 1. Immigration spurred population growth in British colonies; Scots-Irish, Germans. Live births, sex ratio evened out in the South; population doubled. 2. Enlightenment
a. John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). However, educated Europe & American with vocabulary and unified world view.
b. Benjamin Franklin: Successful printing business retired in 1748; established basic theory of electricity still used today. c. Locke’s Two Treaties of Government British had a strong colony. John Colbert: financial planner of Lou 14th “Colbertism evolved into mercantilism or mercantile Economics. Hard $ is source of all wealth (gold/silver). Success=$$$$ Export more than you import. Export=$$. “Develop in the way that’s best for the mother country”. Control the trade/finished product.
C. The Southern Colonies; Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia Founding of Virginia: England’s 1st permanent colony 1. Religious and economic 2. Jamestown was the 1st successful settlement (English Colony established 1607) on a swampy peninsula in a river near the Chesapeake Bay called Tsenacommacah in 1607: 104 men/boys (colonial leader John Smith) 4,000/5,000 died of starvation/lack of medical care a. colonists fell victim to dissension and disease b. arrived during a severe drought/ Indians would not provide them with food c. in exchange for food Indian leaders asked for guns, hatchets and swords d. 1613 survivers of drought kidnapped Powhatan (chief’s daughter) Pocahontas and she eventually converted to Christianity and married colonist John Rolfe. Quite possibly for diplomatic reasons; marriage initiated peace between English & Powhatans. John Rolfe learned to process tobacco for smoking.
Rolanoke, NC (failed colony plagued with disease,