Essay on 1 Intro Ppt 1

Submitted By kweenross
Words: 1125
Pages: 5

INTRODUCTION TO
HUMAN ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY


INTRODUCTION
• Anatomy
– Study of STRUCTURE
• Greek for “cutting up”

• Physiology
– Study of FUNCTION (what body part does and how they do it)
• Greek for “relationship to nature”

It is impossible to separate anatomy and physiology…
• The functional role of an organ/body part depends on the way it is constructed
– Tooth shapes enable teeth to break solid foods into smaller pieces
– Bones and muscles of hand allow us to grasp objects – Powerful muscular walls of heart propel blood out of chambers and into blood vessels

Humans are curious…
• They wanted to know how their bodies worked – Studied cadavers
– Experimented with medicines (herbs and potions) From hunters/gatherers to farmers… • Exposure to parasites
• Less reliance on wild plants’ resistance properties • Malnutrition
• More tooth decay
• More infectious diseases

STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF
ORGANIZATION
• Subatomic particles:
– Proton: + charge
– Neutron: 0 charge
– Electron: - charge

• Atom
– Carbon
– Hydrogen
– Oxygen

STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF
ORGANIZATION
• Molecule/Compound
– Water
– Carbon dioxide

• Macromolecule
– Carbohydrate
– DNA

STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF
ORGANIZATION
• Organelle





Ribosome
Mitochondria
ER
Vacuole

• Cell
– RBC
– Neuron

STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF
ORGANIZATION

STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF
ORGANIZATION
• Organism
– Human

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE
• 1. Movement—change in position
• 2. Responsiveness—reaction to stimulus
• 3. Growth—change in size
• 4. Reproduction—producing new individuals either asexually or sexually
• 5. Respiration—aerobic/anaerobic

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE
• 6. Digestion—breakdown of food substance
• 7. Absorption—passage of substance in body fluid
• 8. Circulation—movement of substance
• 9. Assimilation—synthesis of new substances
• 10. Excretion—removal of waste

MAINTENANCE OF LIFE
• REQUIREMENTS OF ORGANISMS
– 1. Nutrients: energy and raw materials for new living matter – 2. Oxygen: cellular respiration
– 3. Water: metabolism, lubrication, etc.
– 4. Heat: maintenance of 37o C body temp
– 5. Pressure: breathing, filtering blood through kidneys
– **quality and quantity of these factors are important

Life is a delicate balance…
• Birth of baby
• Trauma scene
• Instant of death

Metabolism
• Defined as the body’s ability to break down and build up molecules/compounds for the body to use
• Sum of all the physical and chemical changes or reactions that occur within the body
– Catabolism—breakdown of molecules
– Anabolism—build-up of molecules
– Catabolism + anabolism = metabolism

MAINTENANCE OF LIFE
• HOMEOSTASIS
– Occurs among and within 70 trillion cells
– Maintenance of stable environment despite external changes – All life processes must work to maintain homeostasis
– Negative Feedback: bring conditions back toward setpoint – Positive Feedback: purposefully move conditions away from setpoint

MAINTENANCE OF LIFE
• 3 HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISM
COMPONENTS:
– 1. Receptor: sense change
– 2. Control Center: regulates setpoint
– 3. Effector: organ that acts in response to change MAINTENANCE OF LIFE
• Stages in Negative
Feedback

MAINTENANCE OF LIFE
• Example of Negative
Feedback
– Blood glucose regulation – Maintenance of body temperature – Regulation of blood pressure MAINTENANCE OF LIFE

• Examples of Positive
Feedback (specific function, short-lived)

– Blood Clotting
– Uterine contractions in childbirth ORGANIZATION OF THE
HUMAN BODY
• 2 DIVISIONS OF
THE HUMAN BODY
– 1. Axial Portion: head, neck, trunk
– 2. Appendicular
Portion: arms legs

ORGANIZATION OF THE
HUMAN BODY
• 4 MAJOR CAVITIES
WITHIN AXIAL
PORTION
– 1. Cranial cavity: Brain
– 2. Vertebral cavity: Spinal cord – 3. Thoracic cavity: Lungs, mediastinum, thymus, heart, esophagus, trachea

ORGANIZATION OF THE
HUMAN BODY
• 4 MAJOR CAVITIES
WITHIN AXIAL
PORTION
• 4. Abdominopelvic Cavity: subdivided into 2 cavities
– Abdominal cavity: stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small intestine, large intestine – Pelvic…