A Roadmap For The Development Of Alternative Methods For Systemic Toxicity Testing

Submitted By spari
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Annotated Bibliography

Clewell, Kim H., et al. "A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing." Europe Public Medicine Central (2012): 29-91. Online Document. <http://europepmc.org/med/22307314>.
This journal article recognizes the pressures to move from the traditional animal testing model to a more politically-more human testing method, in doing so, demonstrates that the current replacement techniques are ineffective to test for human health effects for system toxicity and the high cost of current replacements. This article will help me understand the whole argument, though certainly not humane, the real human costs associated with animal testing of cosmetics and why many feel it is necessary to continue until a true alternative is found. This piece is credible because it is published and peer reviewed by European Public Medicine Central, a joint collaboration between the various biomedical institutions of the European Union with close collaboration with the US National Library of Medicine and the US Center for Biotechnology Information.
McNamee, Pauline, et al. "A Tiered Approach to the Use of Alternatives to Animal Testing for the Safety Assessment of Cosmetics." Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Volume 54.Issue 2 (2009): 197-209. <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230009000634>.
This journal article is an answer to the EU Cosmetics Directive for the cessation of animal testing that took effect in January of 2008, analyzes several methods for the replacement to the “rabbit Draize eye test,” an industry standard for the testing of eye cosmetics for human toxicity, how effective the new methods are compared to the animal based ones, and explains on a “decision-tree approach” to integration. This article will help me understand how effective alternative approaches to traditional animal testing are in terms of clinical results and industry integration and acceptance. This article is published in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology journal, a respected peer reviewed publication in the field of biochemical research.
Festing, Michael F.W. and David P. Lovell. "Reducing the Use of Laboratory Animals in Toxicological Research and Testing by Better Experimental Design." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Vol. 58.No. 1 (1996): 127-140. < http://www.jstor.org/stable/2346169>.
This article is a statistical analysis which studied the techniques and procedures used in animal testing across many industry types, including biomedical and cosmetic, drawing the conclusion that the processes in practice are out of date and inefficient. Through modern techniques the total number of animals being cruelly subjugated can greatly reduced and even those still afflicted will have their suffering substantially lessened. This will help demonstrate how the industry is only focuses on the ending result of the animal testing and has no concern with regards to the means in which it is acquired, since they still use the same groundwork set forth in 1959 and have not yet since bothered to upgrade. This article is statistical analysis and draws upon numbers to form an opinion rather than formulating an opinion than using statistics to justify it. It is a product of the Royal Statistical Society, a trusted institution since 1834, and by two well respected authors in their field.
Hungerford, Amanda. "Back to Basics: Courts' Treatment of Agency Animal Studies after "Daubert"." Columbia Law Review Vol. 110.No. 1 (January 2010): 70-113. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/40380324 .>.
Brings a unique perspective to answer the question of animal cruelty in many different areas of use. It shows that after Daubert v. Merrel Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the court created a new framework with which to analyze scientific data and now required only to admit the opinions of experts, instead the results of animal testing based lab studies, due to the many inconsistencies that arising from both